Module 1-Overview of Anatomy and Physiology.pdf - MODULE A....

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MODULE 1A. Overview of Anatomy and PhysiologyLearning Objectives1.Compare and contrast anatomy and physiology, including their specialization andmethods of study2.Discuss the fundamental relationship between anatomy and physiologyHumananatomyis the scientific study of the body’s structures. Some of thesestructures are very small and can only be observed and analyzed with the assistance of amicroscope. Other larger structures can readily be seen, manipulated, measured, andweighed. The word “anatomy” comes from a Greek root that means “to cut apart.” Humananatomy was first studied by observing the exterior of the body and observing the woundsof soldiers and other injuries. Later, physicians were allowed to dissect bodies of the deadto augment their knowledge. When a body is dissected, its structures are cut apart in orderto observe their physical attributes and their relationships to one another. Dissection is stillused in medical schools, anatomy courses, and in pathology labs. In order to observestructures in living people, however, a number of imaging techniques have been developed.These techniques allow clinicians to visualize structures inside the living body such as acancerous tumor or a fractured bone.Like most scientific disciplines, anatomy has areas of specialization.Grossanatomyis the study of the larger structures of the body, those visible without the aid ofmagnification (Figure 1a).Macro– means “large,” thus, gross anatomy is also referred to asmacroscopic anatomy. In contrast,micro– means “small,” andmicroscopic anatomyis thestudy of structures that can be observed only with the use of a microscope or othermagnification devices (Figure 1b). Microscopic anatomy includescytology, the study ofcells andhistology, the study of tissues. As the technology of microscopes has advanced,anatomists have been able to observe smaller and smaller structures of the body, fromslices of large structures like the heart, to the three-dimensional structures of largemolecules in the body.Figure 1. Gross and Microscopic Anatomy.(a) Gross anatomy considers large structuressuch as the brain. (b) Microscopic anatomy can deal with the same structures, though at adifferent scale. This is a micrograph of nerve cells from the brain. LM×1600. (credit a:“WriterHound”/Wikimedia Commons; credit b: Micrograph provided by the Regents ofUniversity of Michigan Medical School © 2012)of119
Anatomists take two general approaches to the study of the body’s structures:regional and systemic.Regional anatomyis the study of the interrelationships of all of thestructures in a specific body region, such as the abdomen. Studying regional anatomy helpsus appreciate the interrelationships of body structures, such as how muscles, nerves, bloodvessels, and other structures work together to serve a particular body region. Incontrast,systemic anatomyis the study of the structures that make up a discrete bodysystem—that is, a group of structures that work together to perform a unique body function.

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