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Nonmetals Feb 15 - Group 6A Oxides Only OF2 and O2F2 have O...

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Group 6A Oxides Only OF 2 and O 2 F 2 have O in positive oxidation states O -2 is the most common oxidation state Metal oxides ionic; combine with water to give bases Nonmetal oxides covalent, mainly simple molecules SiO 2 and B 2 O 3 are polymeric Most combine with water to give acids (SO 3 , CO 2 , P 2 O 10 ) Metal oxides can be amphoteric (Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 ) Peroxides and Superoxides K, Rb, Cs react with O 2 to give MO 2 (Superoxides) Na, K, Ca, Ba produce peroxides, Na 2 O 2 , CaO2, etc. KO 2 is used in self-contained breathing apparatus to produce oxygen and to absorb CO 2 H 2 O 2 can behave either as an oxidizing agent in acid or as a reducing agent in basic or neutral solutions. It disproportionates into H 2 O and O 2 Other Group 6A Elements General Characteristics No stable counterparts to O 2 and O 3 All exhibit –2 oxidation states (ns 2 np 4 ) All exhibit oxidation states up to +6 All show expanded coordination numbers and valence shells (d orbitals) Occurrence and Preparation Elemental sulfur is mined from underground deposits by the Frasch process Also occurs widely in nature as metal sulfides and sulfates Se and Te occur in low abundance as selenides and tellurides Polonium is radioactive and has no stable isotopes Properties and Uses of S, Se and Te Sulfur exists as S 8 rings, which break at higher temperatures and can reform into polymeric forms Selenium and Tellurium do not exhibit ring structures, but do have polymeric forms
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