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Chapter 1Stanzas/strophes- music stays the same, the words are different Cadenza- soprano lifts to a very high pitch and fades away Pitch & Its Notation Volume- loud or soft Pitch/note- column of air Frequency- waves per second Octave-interval separating two pitches C-D-E-F-G-A-B-CTreble Clef- G cleft Bass clef- F cleft Score- music notation Tablature- notations that show finger positions instead of pitch On the keyboard, half steps are called semitones Major scale- C to C Minor scale- A to A Chromatic scales- uses all the white and black keys Rhymth- beats per second Duration/ rhymthic value- lengths of sounds (two beats, half a beat) dots add half a note value Tempo- speed of the beat Allegro- fast beat Adagio- slow beat Downbeats- strong beatsUpbeats- weak beats Measure- separate units with bar lines Meter signature- 4/4, ¾ melody- tune and sound Harmony- sound at the given musical moment Consonant- sounds pleasing to the ear Dissonant- doesn’t sound pleasing to the ear Melody- horizontal component Harmony- vertical Themes: principle melodies in larger Triads: three-part sonorities Tonality-the character of a piece of music as determined by the key in which it is played or the relations between the notes of a scale or key.Monophonic- single voices Polyphonic- multiple voices Homophonic- voices part change pitches simultaneously Counterpoint- combining multiple voices lines in a manner pleasing to the ear Imitative polyphony- one voices imitates another that went before it (pitch changes)Canon- one voice leads and the other follows exactly “Three Blind Mice”Nuance- sound of the music Dynamic level- manner of attack indicated by markings attached to the note Slur- mark a phrase (a musical idea that belongs together) Voices and Instruments: Chorus- joined voices Mezzo soprano- low soprano
Contralto- a low alto Baritone- a low tenor/high bass Musical instruments- orchestra: woodwinds, brass, percussion, strings Keyboard instruments: Harpsichord- (17thand 18th)- sharp and metallic, change volume by plucking more strings at once, change tone quality by using a different keyboard piano- (18thcentury) play loud and soft according to touch, hammers strike against strings pipe organ- bellows that pushes through series of pipes of varying construction Electronic Instruments: Analog synthesizers used FM (frequency modul.ation) technology with transistor and printed circuits. Ethnic Instrumetns: Chordophone: string insturments, Aerophones: winds Membranophones: drums Idiophones: where the hole instrument is the vibrating medium, as in rattles, cymbals, and wind chimes Tonality: based on the notion that certain kinds of sounds function in certain ways when set over a spam of time. Scales Major- happy / Minor-sadOne letter name per step- diatonic Half steps in an octave- chromatic scale Function Key: Tonic pitch- first note of the scaleLeading tone- seventh scale degree 5thscale degree- dominant, pulls strong downward Tonic- chord built on the first scale degree Dominant- chord built on the fifth scale degree