Ch. 20 Outline Holy Roman Empire Notes - Ch. 20 Outline I....

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Ch. 20 OutlineI.The establishment of regional statesA.The Holy Roman Empire1.Otto Ia.Otto of Saxony rose in northern Germany by themid-tenth centuryb.Pope John XII proclaimed him emperor in 962:birth of Holy Roman Empire2.Investiture contesta.Formerly, important church officials wereappointed by imperial authoritiesb.Pope Gregory VII ordered an end to the practicec.Emperor Henry IV was excommunicated becauseof his disobedience3.Frederick Barbarossaa.Sought to absorb Lombardy in north Italyb.Papal coalition forced Barbarossa to relinquish hisrights in LombardyB.Regional monarchies in France and England1.Capetian France: Hugh Capet founded dynasty from 987,lasted three centuries2.The Normans were descendents of Vikings in Normandy,Francea.Duke William of Normandy invaded England in1066b.Introduced Norman style of political administrationto EnglandC.Regional states in Italy and Iberia1.Popes ruled a good-sized territory in central Italy2.Prosperous northern Italian city-states: Florence,Bologna, Genoa, Milan, Venice3.Normans conquered southern Italy, brought RomanCatholic Christianity4.Christian and Muslim states in Iberiaa.Muslim conquerors ruled most of the peninsula,eighth to the eleventh centuriesb.Christian kingdoms took the peninsula (exceptGranada) by late thirteenth century
II.Economic growth and social developmentA.Growth of the agricultural economy1.Expansion of arable landa.Population pressure by the late tenth centuryb.Serfs and monks began to clear forests and swampsc.Lords encouraged such efforts for high taxes2.Improved agricultural techniquesa.

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Term
Fall
Professor
DrewDrummond
Tags
Crusades, Southern Italy, late thirteenth century, feudal nobles

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