Civil War and Reconstruction - UNIT 5 The Civil War and Its Aftermath(Reconstruction Notes from Flag book text Ch 14-15 I The War begins a Fort Sumter i

Civil War and Reconstruction - UNIT 5 The Civil War and Its...

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UNIT 5: The Civil War and Its Aftermath (Reconstruction) Notes from “Flag book” text Ch. 14 -15 I. The War begins a. Fort Sumter i. Fort held by Union (federal) troops but located in seceded state ii. CSA control of Charleston harbor cut federal troops off from supplies and reinforcements starving troops out iii. Lincoln called SC bluff and attempted to send provisions to the troops which caused SC militia to attack federal provision ships (officially CSA aggressor in war and Union only defending its troops…) iv. Fort captured by SC militia after two days of bombardment b. Additional states secede VA, NC, TN, and AR all seceded after federal troops used at Fort Sumter to handle crisis (creation of West Virginia Unionists counties in VA) c. Lincoln attempts to retain border states of MD, DE, MO and KY 1. Lincoln’s inaugural address: not going to interfere with slavery or any other southern institution appealed for restraint 2. Retaining states important to Northern success in war a. Loss of states would have increased CSA population by 50% b. North would no longer have strategic position to carry out war plans 3. Convinced to not secede partially due to large number of Unionists in these states 4. Federal troops enforcement of law helped to prevent MD, DE, and MO from seceding KY voted to remain neutral and Lincoln acknowledged neutrality knowing that the CSA would not respect it 5. Lincoln initially did not emancipate slaves in order to appease border state legislatures II. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Union and the Confederacy (see attached spreadsheet) III. Congressional Acts during the war (Union) a. Expansion of presidential power (Lincoln acts after Fort Sumter without congressional approval: acting as commander-in-chief for the public safety despite Congress not being in session) i. Called for 75k volunteers to defeat insurrectionists in the South ii. Authorized spending for the war iii. Suspending writ of habeas corpus: eventually became Habeas Corpus Act 1. Ex Parte Milligan (1866) Supreme Court ruled against federal government’s prosecution of civilians using military tribunals in IN b. Expansion of federal government power i. Republican party dominance in Congress meant that they could take this opportunity to make their economic platform law ii. Economic 1. Morrill Tariff Act of 1861 high protective tariffs protecting American manufacturers and helping to raise much needed funds for war effort 2. Legal Tender Act issuance of Greenbacks, a national currency, (led to inflation later on) to help raise funds without depleting gold reserves inflation and unemployment in Northern cities of wage laborers as a result 3. National Bank Act initiated by Congress to control the increases in revenue created by implementing excise and income taxes as well as the expenditures required to fund the war effort iii. Domestic 1. Homestead Act of 1862 Federal government sold (gave away)160 acre parcels of Great

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