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Cells PP.pptx - Cells I. Cell Structure and Function A....

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CellsI. Cell Structure and FunctionA. Cell Theory1. A cell is the basic structural andfunctional unit of living organisms2. All cells come from pre-existing cells3. The activity of an organism dependson both the individual and thecollective activities of its cells
CellsA) Principle of Complementarity – thebiochemical activities of cells aredictated by their specific subcellularstructures4. Most cells are capable of self-reproductionB. Typical cells are made of three mainparts:1. Cell (plasma) membrane2. Nucleus3. Cytoplasm and cytoplasmic organelles
CellsC. Cell Membrane1. A flexible, selectively permeablemembrane that defines the extent of acell by separating intracellular fluid (ICF)from the extracellular fluid (ECF)2. The Fluid Mosaic Model – 1972A) Composed of a phospholipid bilayer1) Hydrophilic heads face outward2) Hydrophobic tails face inward
Cellsa) Creates a hydrophobic corethatgives the membrane selectivepermeability3) Two layers are moveable (fluid)B) The plasma membrane contains manyembedded structures1) Proteins:
Cellsa) Transmembrane proteins – proteins thattypically extend all the way across themembrane and play a role in manyfunctionsi) Transport proteins(a) Channels, pores, carriers, andpumpsii) Enzymesiii) Receptorsiv) Intercellular junctionsv) Cell-cell recognition
Cellsb) Surface (peripheral) proteins – proteinsthat are attached to either side of themembrane and are mostly involvedwith:i) Acting as enzymes & receptorsii) Attaching to the cytoskeleton formovement and supportiii) Aid in changing the shape of the cell
Cells2) Cholesterol & Steroids – lipidstructures that help to stabilize themembranea) Necessary due to the lack of a cellwall3. Associated StructuresA) Microvilli (“little shaggy hairs”) – finger-like projections that increase the surfacearea of the plasma membraneB) Membrane junctions
Cells1) Tight junctions – membrane proteins fusethe two adjacent cell membranes togethera) Prevent the movement of substancesbetween cells2) Desmosomes – anchoring junctions thatare associated with protein filamentsa) Provide strength3) Gap junctions – membrane proteins formchannels between adjacent cellsa) Allow impulse transmission betweencells
Background image
CellsD. Nucleus1. The nucleus is the control center ofthe cell that also contains DNA in theform of chromatin/chromosomes

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Term
Spring
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, ECF, c Cell Membrane

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