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scan0001 - Final Exam Phil 106 — Critical Thinking Name...

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Unformatted text preview: Final Exam Phil 106 — Critical Thinking Name Fall 2007 Section Instructor: Ray Darr ' Date Fill in the blank to the left of the question with the letter that corresponds to the word or phrase that best completes the question. (2 points each) 1. When the construction of a sentence allows it to have more than one meaning the informal fallacy of (a) slippery slope (b) straw man (c) amphiboly (d) poisoning the well has been committed. 2. We commit the fallacy of (a) slippery slope (b) post hoc ergo propter hoc (c) hasty generalization (d) affirming the consequent whenever we conclude that one event or condition causes another simply on the ground that the two events or conditions are associated in our experience. 3. The elimination of all but one common antecedent is the essence of Mill‘s method of (a) concomitant variation (b) difference (c) agreement (d) residue. 4. A claim or proposition whose truth-value depends on something outside itself (on the truth or falsity of other propositions) is called a(n) (a) necessary truth (b) contingent statement (c) analogy (d) enthymerne. 5. Mill’s method of (a) agreement (b) residues (c) difference (d) analogy is the principle of causal reasoning that consists of looking for a correlation between the absence of an effect and an absence of antecedent conditions. 6. (a) Plausibility (b) Relevance (c) Facts ((1) Validity refers to factors that might reasonably be considered to have some effect on the conclusion being inferred in an inductive argument. 7. (a) Red herring (b) Circular argument_(c) Post hoc ergo propter hoc (d) Ad Hominem is a fallacious argument strategy based on diverting attention fi'om the real issue to another one of less consequence. 8. The (a) theoretical (b) empirical (c) independent (d) dependent probability of an event occurring is determined by deductive reasoning, from relevant assumptions, before the event occurs. 9. Propositions that reduce the probability that a hypothesis is true are called (a) diverging (b) plausible (c) relevant (d) converging propositions. 10. An idea or set of ideas under investigation is called a(n) (a) sample (b) analogy (c) hypothesis (d) analogue. ll. A (a) tautology (b) slippery slope (c) necessary truth ((1) contingent claim is claim that is necessarily true because to deny it would be self-contradictory. 12. The (a) sample (b) population (0) anaiogue (d) target is the particular observed instances used in inductive or statistical generalizations. 13. An item used as a basis of comparison (that example we understand and are using to clear up some misunderstanding) in an explanation or argument by analogy is called the (a) target (b) population (c) tautology ((1) analogue. 14. The (a) antecedent (b) consequent (c) conclusion (d) minor premise of a hypothetical syilogisrn describes the situation about which a decision must be made. 15. The set of instances about which general conclusions are projected in an inductive or statistical generalization is called the (a) sample (b) inference (c) conclusion (d) population. ...
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