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Sociology Terms - Sociology Terms Chapter 1 Essence of...

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Sociology Terms Chapter 1 – Essence of Sociology Class conflict – Marx’s term for the struggle between the capitalists, who own the means of production, and the proletariat, who do not Conflict perspective – A theoretical perspective that portrays society as always changing and always marked by conflict Deconstructionism – The idea that to understand society, we should deconstruct it, or take it apart, along with anything associated with it Detached observation – A method of observation in which the researcher observes as an outsider, from a distance, without getting involved Economic globalization – The interrelationship among the world’s economies Ethnography – An analysis of people’s lives from their own perspectives Feminist theory – A form of conflict theory that explains human life in terms of the experiences of women (p. 14) Functionalist perspective – A theoretical perspective that focuses on social order Global village – A closely knit community of all the world’s societies Hypothesis – A tentative statement about how various events are related to one another Latent function – A function that is unintended and often unrecognized (p. 13) Macro view – A view that focuses on the large social phenomena of society, such as social institutions and inequality Manifest function – A function that is intended and seems obvious (p. 13) Mechanical solidarity – A form of social cohesion that develops when people do similar work and have similar beliefs and values Micro view – A view that focuses on the immediate social situations in which people interact with one another Organic solidarity – A type of social cohesion that arises when people in a society perform a wide variety of specialized jobs and therefore have to depend on one another Outsourcing – The practice of producing inexpensive products by building factories and hiring workers abroad Participant observation – A method of observation in which the researcher takes part in the activities of the group being studied Patriarchy – A system of domination in which men exercise power over women Secondary analysis – Searching for new knowledge in the data collected earlier by another researcher or a public agency Social consensus – A condition in which most members of society agree on what is god for everybody to have and cooperate to achieve it Social forces – Forces that arise from the society in which we are a part Social integration – The degree to which people are tied to a social group Social marginality – Being excluded from mainstream society Sociological imagination – Mill’s term for the ability to see the impact of social forces on individuals, especially on their private lives Symbolic interactionist perspective – A theoretical perspective that directs our attention to the details of a specific situation and of the interaction between individuals in that situation Theoretical perspective – A set of general assumptions about the nature of society
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