apush vocab list.docx - Period 1 1 Beringiau2013 the land...

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Period 1 1. Beringia– the land bridge connecting Siberia and North America, allowing for migration between the two continents that enabled the population of North America by Native Americans 2. Mayans– Native American civilization centered in Mexico and Mesoamerica; declined around 900 CE 3. Aztecs– Native American civilization centered in Mexico (capital city of Tenochtitlan) that followed the Mayan civilization; ended when it was conquered by Hernan Cortes 4. Cahokia– a Native American settlement on the Mississippi River characterized by mounds; theorized to have had a large population (close to 40,000) demonstrating the high degree of development of mount building societies, but declined around 1300 5. Maize/Corn– a key crop for many Native American societies in the Southwest and Mexico region; part of the trio of sister crops; a marker of highly developed settled native societies in the region 6. Primogeniture– a common practice in Europe around the 15th century in which fathers would grant all of their land and property to their eldest son as heir, often leaving their other children destitute 7. The Renaissance– a cultural revival in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries marked by huge advances in art, technology, and science; had a strong basis in humanism (which would go on to shape American government); led to the accumulation of wealth among upper classes and empowerment of monarchs leading to exploration 8. West Africa– the area from Senegal to the Democratic Republic of Congo in Africa; mainly agricultural; large variety of ethnic groups; mostly animistic and polygamous 9. Vasco da Gama– a Portuguese explorer that, in 1498, travelled around the Cape of Good Hope from Portugal to the Indian Ocean, the first European explorer to accomplish such a voyage; helped set up trade with India using gunboat diplomacy 10. Reconquista– a centuries-long movement by the Spanish monarchy to recapture all Islamic territories in Spain; finally finished by Isabel I and Ferdinand II 11. Christopher Columbus– an explorer sponsored by the Spanish monarchy to travel to India; instead, he reached the Bahamas in 1492 and thought that he had reached India; made three voyages to the Americas, claimed all the land for Spain, but never realized it wasn’t India 12. Hernán Cortés– a Spanish conquistador that toppled the Aztec empire with the help of a native woman named Malinali after killing Moctezuma in Tenochtitlan; the rest of the empire fell through exploitation of the rifts between natives 13. Moctezuma– the last ruler of the Aztec empire, welcomed Hernan Cortes into Tenochtitlan but was taken captive by him and eventually killed 14. Malinali– a Native American woman who was captured by Hernan Cortes in a raid of her settlement; acted as a translator and guide; the catalyst of the fall of the Aztec empire 15. Francisco Pizarro– a Spanish conquistador that toppled the Inca empire; Inca empire had immense bureaucracy, many trade routes, and infrastructure but by the time Pizarro

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