Chapter 3 - Chapter 9 The Reproduction Of Cells I Genome Of...

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Chapter 9- The Reproduction Of Cells I.  Genome Of Eukaryotic Cells There are 46 chromosomes in a human somatic cell.  Reproductive cells, or gametes, have half as many  chromosomes.  Chromatin is organized into a long thin fiber that is compactly folded and coiled to form the  chromosomes.  The cell copies its entire genome by duplicating each chromosome.  Each chromosome  consists of two sister chromatids after replication.  The centromere holds the chromatids together. In mitosis, the sister chromatids are pulled apart and repackaged as complete chromosome sets in two  nuclei, one at each end of the cell.  The cell then splits by cytokinesis.   II.  Cell Cycle & Mitosis Interphase is composed o the G1, S and G2 phases.  During all three phases the cell grows by  synthesizing proteins and manufacturing organelles.  However the chromosomes are replicated  specifically in the S phase.   Microtubules extend from the centrosomes in radial arrays called asters.  Centrioles are present outside  of the nucleus during Interphase and the mitotic spindle develops from it.  
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