Controlling the Internal Environment - Controlling the...

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Controlling the Internal Environment A. Introduction 1. Complex animals- need to maintain homeostasis, of interstitial fluid 2. Osmoregulation- we actively try to maintain osmotic pressure 3. Excretion- getting rid of metabolic wastes a. Urea b. CO 2 4. Elimination- undigested, unabsorbed food gets pooped out B. Metabolic Wastes 1. Carbon Dioxide- lungs 2. Nitrogenous Wastes a. Ammonia (most toxic)- fish, can excrete NH 3 because surround by H 2 O b. Uric acid (least toxic)- Birds and Reptiles least toxic, need to excrete it because of shelled embryos - birds need exclusively because of flight (no water) - reptiles need exclusively because of dry environments need to conserve water C. Osmoregulatory organs 1. Simple diffusion (Protozoa, Sponges, Cnidaria, Ctenophores), Contractile vacuoles (fresh water organism because of hypotonic environment)
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2. Nephridial organs a. protonephridia- Platyhelminthes, one opening (nephridial pore), blind sac (flame cell) - main function- fluid balance, hypotonic waste (water) b. metanephridia- Annelids, Mollusks, two openings (nephridial pore, ciliated funnel) - function i. wastes, glucose, amino acids, ions, and water all enter, everything but waste reabsorbed ii. produces urine, concentrated but still hypotonic to organism.
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