Organic Compounds - Organic Compounds Carbon Compounds-...

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Organic Compounds Carbon Compounds - Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acid, Carbohydrates - All organic compounds are Carbon contain compounds - Not all compounds that contain Carbon are organic Ex) CO, CO 2 , CO 3 - 1. Monomers - small, building blocks 2. Polymers - large, macromolecules a. Carbohydrate - monosaccharides Proteins - amino acids Nucleic Acid - nucleotides Lipids - fatty acids I. Lipids 1. Definition- heterogeneous, organic compounds that are soluble in non- polar organic solvents. Ex) Benzene, Chloroform, Ether. But almost completely insoluble in H 2 O a. All contain C, H, O, some contain N, P 2. Function a. lipids make membranes impermeable b. Energy storage without influencing water balance - 4 cal/g of Protein - 4 cal/g of Carbohydrate - 9 cal/g of Lipid c. some hormones are lipids d. some vitamins are lipids 3. Subgroups a. fatty acids b. triglycerides c. phospholipids d. waxes e. steroids f. vitamins A. Fatty Acids - break down with acid and heat, humans use enzymes 1. Definition- long chain of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms with Carboxyl group at end. a. Monomers – CH-[CH 2 ] x – COOH Ex) smallest fatty acids CH 3 -C-OH (acetic acid) Methyl O Carboxyl 2. Saturated- full, no double bonds, all Hydrogens are present a. Palmitic acid CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 14 -COOH (16 Carbons long) b. Stearic acid CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 16 -COOH (18 Carbons long) 3. Unsaturated- one double bond, missing two Hydrogens a. Oleic acid CH 3 -(CH) x -(CH=CH)-(CH2) x -COOH (18 Carbons long) 4. Polyunsaturated- more than 1 double bond a. Linoleic Acid (18 Carbons long) Essential fatty acids - prevent hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerostis)
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B. Triglycerides (triacylglycerol) 1. definition- Esters of fatty acids and glycerol Ex)Fatty Acids: (rest of carbons)- R-COOH- carboxyl Alcohol: R’-OH R-COOR’ 2. structure Condensation reaction O (dehydration synthesis) O R-C-OH + R’-OH HOH + R-C-O-R’ a. Glycerol- has 3 alcohol groups H O H-C-O--C-R O H-C-O--C-R O H-C-O--C-R H
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BS 131 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '08 term at University of the Sciences in Philadelphia.

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Organic Compounds - Organic Compounds Carbon Compounds-...

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