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CH_4 - Chapter 4 Gerhard Lenski society and technology...

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Chapter 4 Gerhard Lenski: society and technology Describes how society changed of the past 10,000years Tech is important in shaping society Socio-culture evolution- changes that occur as a society gains new tech Ex| discovered how to make wind move a boat (sail) -> they discovered new land Hunting and Gathering Simplest of all society Little control over environment (food) Nomadic they have to move when the “food” goes Depend on family Age and gender have effect Healthy adults do most work Women gather vegetation Sexes have social importance Use simple weapon; spear, bow & arrow, stone knife No more than half live up to age 20 Society w/better hunting tools reduce the food supply more quickly Horticultural & pastoral societies Horticultural- use of hand tools to raise crops Ex| hoe- work soil Digging stick- plant seeds Made them grow their own food Formed settlements of about 1,000 ppl More productive materials surplus Not everyone work to produce food More production doesn’t always make it better Families produce more than others they become more richer Agrarian societies Agriculture large scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals for more powerful energy sources Important inventions Animal drawn plow- work bigger fields Irrigation-keep soil fertile
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Wheel, writing, numbers, use of various metals Ppl invented money as a common standard of exchange Agriculture raise men to a position of social dominance Industrial societies Productions of goods using advance sources of energy to drive large machinery Industrial technology gave ppl power over their environment
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