First Examination Review List - AAA/ANT 184/SOC 124 REVIEW...

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AAA/ANT 184/SOC 124 REVIEW LIST FIRST EXAMINATION Culture Definitions: 1. Traditions and customs transmitted through learning that is the basis for beliefs and behavior of people exposed to them” 2. “Shared understanding that characterize a group of people that distinguishes them from others” Characteristics: 1. Culture is shared 2. Culture is learned and transmitted through groups 3. Culture is symbolic 4. Culture is contested 5. Culture is integrated 6. Culture changes 7. People use culture actively Ethnography Definition: fieldwork based on research method to study culture as well as a descriptive text based on the story Fieldwork – taking part in events Participant Observation – taking part in the events one is studying Informants used as sources Emic vs. Etic Emic: explanation of culture based on what is meaningful to an insider or native Etic: explanation of a culture based on outsider or non-native’s point of view Ethnography as Text 1. Descriptive study, a rendering of a culture 2. Slice of time 3. Traditionally written from single voice of the anthropologist Ethnicity Definition: entails identification with a group which is formed around virtually similar social and cultural features such as nationality, religion, and language Same as culture?: 1. No. Ethnicity requires identification 2. Creation an dmaintenance of ethnic boundaries are more about self ascription and selective utilization of a few cultural features 3. Ethnicity requires assumption of something essential or given in distinguishing between groups – such as common descent
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Primordial Approach Definition: 1. focuses on “communities of culture” 2. focuses on culture and tradition to explain emergence and retention of ethnicity 3. Ethnic cohesion is seen as sentimental or emotive. People bond together by “web of sentiment, belief, world, and practice”. Critique: 1. Primordial ties do not always lead to ethnic solidarity 2. Primordial explanations of ethnicity can’t account for variations of ethnic awareness 3. Issues of economic and political inequalities are seen as secondary or incidental Instrumentalist Approach Definition: 1. Focuses on “interests” 2. assumes participation within one’s group is a strategic tool for gaining resources 3. assumes that populations remain ethnic because ethnic identification is advantageous or yield greater returns that other statuses Critique: 1. extreme version of the approach construct ethnic membership as situational, generated, and sustained by member’s interests 2. Overemphasis on rational interests in playing a role in retention or dissolution of ethnic ties Rethinking both Approaches 1. Think of different kids of ethnic membership – voluntary and imposed 2. Categorization can include the process whereby one group classifies another Panethnicity – different “ethnic groups” merge into a large scale group Asian American Panethnicity 1. originally imposed category from government (census beaure) 2. Asian Americans are heterogeneous – but there is continuing creation of a
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ANTH 184 taught by Professor Martinmanalansan during the Fall '05 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

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First Examination Review List - AAA/ANT 184/SOC 124 REVIEW...

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