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PSY203Study_Guide_Test2 - Chapter 6 Cognitive Developmental...

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Chapter 6 Cognitive Developmental Theory- o Children are active explorers o Thinking develops as they act on the environment o Manipulating environment modifies your thinking about your environment o Emergence and acquisition of schemata (how one perceives the world) o 4 stages: Sensorimotor (birth-2 years old) Preoperational (2-7 years old) Concrete Operational (7-11 years old) Formal Operational (11 years old-adulthood) How do schemes develop and change (Change processes)- Schema: a mental structure that represents some aspect of the world; use schemata to organize current knowledge and provide a framework for future understanding; children adopt schemata to understand the world Ex: stereotypes, archetypes, social roles, world views Schemata start as motor patterns [dropping something] and become more deliberate [throwing something]; the move goes from action based (doing) to mental level (you now think before you do) Schemata can change through various processes: o Adaptation o Building schemas through direct interaction o A ss imilation - s ame s chema (you ADJUST the existing schema) o A cc ommodation - c reate/ c hange schema (what you see doesn’t make sense with what you know, so you have to change the way you think) o Organization o After formation of new schema, you rearrange and link new with old schema Research about accuracy of Piaget’s stage description- most of Piaget’s results came from his experimentation on his own three children; other children in Piaget’s small research sample were all from well-educated professionals of high socio-economic status Piaget used own children Other children were from smart, rich families Violation of expectation method- first use habituate a child to look at & get used to seeing a normal, possible, actual outcome (carrot going behind screen)…you want to habituate them to the possible or realize that the impossible method is different and focus more on the impossible than the possible
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Major achievements of sensorimotor stage - [Object permanence & mental representation] [how we acquire schemes assimilation, accommodation] Children eventually learn to understand the world through mental thought operations rather than purely through actions; this stage marks the development of essential spatial abilities and understanding of the world in six sub-stages: o Reflexes (birth-1 month): child understands the environment purely through inborn reflexes sucking, looking, involuntary grasping [palmar] o Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months): simple motor habits centered around own body; coordinating sensations & new schemas Child accidentally sucks thumb, likes it, and then intentionally tries to imitate action later o Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months): repeat interesting effects in surrounding; child becomes more focused on the world & begins intentionally repeating actions to trigger environmental response Child will purposefully pick up a toy in order to put it in mouth o Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions (8-12 months):
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PSY203Study_Guide_Test2 - Chapter 6 Cognitive Developmental...

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