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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 Cognitive Developmental Theory- o Children are active explorers o Thinking develops as they act on the environment o Manipulating environment modifies your thinking about your environment o Emergence and acquisition of schemata (how one perceives the world) o 4 stages: Sensorimotor (birth-2 years old) Preoperational (2-7 years old) Concrete Operational (7-11 years old) Formal Operational (11 years old-adulthood) How do schemes develop and change (Change processes)- Schema: a mental structure that represents some aspect of the world; use schemata to organize current knowledge and provide a framework for future understanding; children adopt schemata to understand the world Ex: stereotypes, archetypes, social roles, world views Schemata start as motor patterns [dropping something] and become more deliberate [throwing something]; the move goes from action based (doing) to mental level (you now think before you do) Schemata can change through various processes: o Adaptation o Building schemas through direct interaction o A ss imilation- s ame s chema (you ADJUST the existing schema) o A cc ommodation- c reate/ c hange schema (what you see doesnt make sense with what you know, so you have to change the way you think) o Organization o After formation of new schema, you rearrange and link new with old schema Research about accuracy of Piagets stage description- most of Piagets results came from his experimentation on his own three children; other children in Piagets small research sample were all from well-educated professionals of high socio-economic status Piaget used own children Other children were from smart, rich families Violation of expectation method- first use habituate a child to look at & get used to seeing a normal, possible, actual outcome (carrot going behind screen)you want to habituate them to the possible or realize that the impossible method is different and focus more on the impossible than the possible Major achievements of sensorimotor stage- [Object permanence & mental representation] [how we acquire schemes assimilation, accommodation] Children eventually learn to understand the world through mental thought operations rather than purely through actions; this stage marks the development of essential spatial abilities and understanding of the world in six sub-stages: o Reflexes (birth-1 month): child understands the environment purely through inborn reflexes sucking, looking, involuntary grasping [palmar] o Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months): simple motor habits centered around own body; coordinating sensations & new schemas Child accidentally sucks thumb, likes it, and then intentionally tries to imitate action later o Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months): repeat interesting effects in surrounding; child becomes more focused on the world & begins intentionally repeating actions to trigger environmental response Child will purposefully pick up a toy in order to put it in mouth...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSY 203 taught by Professor Ward during the Spring '07 term at University of Miami.
- Spring '07