Study Guide 1 test

Study Guide 1 test - CHAPTER 1 Public relations practices...

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CHAPTER 1 Public relations practices should be proactive (they should be brought in before a problem arises) Research has two methodological approaches to data. - Data is observations we make of the world around us via some methodology. o It can be gathered formally or informally. Informal gathering is from the researches hands on experiences. Judged as being good or bad, fitting or non-fitting, appropriate or inappropriate. Found in case study, interview, focus groups, and participant-observation methodology. - Formal methodology is Data that when examined, systematically leads us to a conclusion. o Surveys and polls – and to a lesser degree: experiments. Differences between Formal and Informal research. - Formal research is the controlled, objective, and systematic gathering of data. o It carefully defines “things” under study, o It carefully follows prescribed rules in gathering and assessing data. o We carefully define, gather, and evaluate the data according to prescribed rules that can be reviewed for error. - Informal research is less controlled and subjective o It is not systematic in either gathering or interpreting data. o It relies heavily on the subjective evaluations of the researcher. o Provides an in-depth description and understanding of a particular subject or event. Two basic types of research - Theoretical o Seeks to provide the underlying frame work for the study of public relations. o Laboratory research is testing predicted relationships in as pure a condition as possible. - Applied o Seeks to use theory driven research in business world situations. o Strategic Research is the development of a public relations campaign or program that uses particular theoretical elements. o Evaluation research is used to provide assessments of how well a program or campaign is working. Types of Questions - Questions of Definition: o Most basic question o Defines what we are attempting to observe o Can be answered by either formal or informal methods Formal methods require that the concept be defined objectively and can be used over and over again with similar results It is like a dictionary definition. I nformal methods define the concept as a point in time. It is extremely subjective and not amendable to reuse. - Questions of Fact: o Seek to compare across or between groups o Arise out of questions of definition and are tested quantitatively. o Answer questions dealing with quantity- how much or how many. o Can be verified or refuted by observation. - Questions of Value: o Ask how well or how good something is. o Can be answered either quantitatively or qualitatively Best answered qualitatively (directly asking individuals what they think of the research object and why.) o Both theoretical and applied researchers address the same problem with slightly different approaches One sets the underlying rational (theoretical) Other sees if it can be applied to the real world (applied) - Questions of Policy:
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Study Guide 1 test - CHAPTER 1 Public relations practices...

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