Micro Topic 4 - TOPIC 4. MICROBIAL METABOLISM (Chapter 5)...

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1. CATABOLIC AND ANABOLIC REACTIONS a) Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions in a living organism. a. Catabolism: reactions in which complex organic molecules are broken down (degraded) into simpler substances. Usually release energy. b. Anabolism: reactions in which simple substances are combined (biosynthesis) to form complex molecules. Usually require energy. b) The energy of catabolic reactions is used to drive anabolic reactions. c) The energy for chemical reactions is stored in ATP (ATP = ADP + Pi + Energy). 2. ENERGY PRODUCTION a) Consider two aspects of energy production: oxidation-reduction reactions and ATP generation. A. OXIDATION-REDUCTION (REDOX) REACTIONS a) Oxidation - removal of one or more electrons (e - ) from a substrate. b) Reduction - gain of one or more electrons. c) When a substance is oxidized, another is simultaneously reduced since the electron removed from the first substrate is transferred to the second molecule. d) Coenzymes serve as electron carriers in redox reactions, e.g., NAD + is the oxidized form; NADH is the reduced form. B. THE GENERATION OF ATP a) Energy released during certain metabolic reactions can be trapped to form ATP from ADP + phosphate (phosphorylation). ADP + Energy + P ATP b) There are three different mechanisms of metabolic phosphorylation: a. Substrate-level phosphorylation - a high-energy phosphate is transferred directly from a phosphorylated substrate to ADP. C-C-C-P + ADP C-C-C + ATP b. Oxidative phosphorylation - energy is released as electrons that are passed to a series of electron acceptors (an electron transport chain) and finally to 0 2 (aerobic respiration) or another inorganic compound (anaerobic respiration). 1
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOLOGY BIO230 taught by Professor Prof.? during the Spring '08 term at Borough of Manhattan Community College.

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Micro Topic 4 - TOPIC 4. MICROBIAL METABOLISM (Chapter 5)...

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