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PsychologyTextNotes - Minter 1 Psychology Textbook:...

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Minter 1 Psychology Textbook: (1,2,4,5,7,8,9,10,11) CHAPTER 1: Foundation of the study of Psychology - psychology: the science of behavior and the mind - behavior: refers to the observable actions of a person or an animal - mind: refers to an individuals sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, dreams, motives, emotional feelings, and other subjective experiences. It also refers to all of the unconscious knowledge and operating rules that are built into or stored in the brain, and that provide the foundation for organizing behavior and conscious experience - science: refers to all attempts to answer questions through the systematic collection and logical analysis of objectively observable behavior, because behavior is directly observable and mind is not. - 1879 – Willhelm Wundt opened the first university-based psychology laboratory - Ideas of psychology before seen as a scientific discipline: 1. Behavior and mental experiences have physical causes, so they are amenable to scientific analysis. 2. The way a person behaves, thinks, and feels is modified, over time, by the person’s experiences in his or her environment. 3. The body’s machinery, which produces behavior and mental experiences, is a product of evolution by natural selection. - Philosophy was tightly bound to religion through the seventeenth century. The church maintained that each human being consists of two distinct but intimately conjoined entities, a material body and an immaterial soul – a view referred to today as dualism. Thought that the soul could not be studied scientifically: the accepted religious doctrine. - Rene Descartes (1596-1650) o Descartes speculations, in the seventeenth century, about reflexes and the interaction of the body and soul in controlling voluntary actions were an important step towards a scientific analysis of human behavior. (Treatise of Man and The Passions of the Soul) o He believed that even quite complex behaviors can occur through purely mechanical means, without involvement of the soul. o He contended that non-human animals do not have souls any activity performed by humans that non-human animals can perform, in theory occur without the soul. o Thought – conscious deliberation and judgment - Thomas Hobbes and the Philosophy of Materialism: o Wrote Leviathan, and shorter work called Human Nature. Hobbes argued that spirit, or soul, is meaningless concept and that nothing exists but matter and energy, a philosophy now known as materialism. In Hobbes view, all human behavior, including the seemingly voluntary choices we make, can in theory be understood in terms of physical processes in the body, especially the brain. Conscious thought, he maintained, is purely a product of the brain’s machinery and therefore subject to natural law. -
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYC 1 taught by Professor Stuartantsis during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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PsychologyTextNotes - Minter 1 Psychology Textbook:...

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