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# EDUC230 - Topic 1 Individual Differences Deviance and...

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Topic 1: Individual Differences, Deviance, and Exceptionality What are the key difference between informal (implicit) labels and formal or institutionalized (explicit) labels? Informal - implicit, these types of labels are given by individuals, temporary Formal - explicit, these types of labels are given by institutions, consequences follow, they are harder to get rid of then informal ones 2 reasons schools use formal labels - resources for special services are scarce/limited and eligibility for special services can be determined thru the use of labels that define students as members of eligible groups What is the medical model of classification? What is the process and criteria used to make medical diagnoses? What factors complicate diagnoses? Medical model - the process physicians use to make diagnoses, symptoms are used as basis of decision, problems are that classification can be invalid because sick people don’t have all the symptoms, well people have some symptoms, and people with different illnesses have similar symptoms, not used much in education because there is no guidance for educational decisions What is the method of statistical relativity? What are the principles that underlie it? Explain how students are classified using the method of statistical relativity. What criticisms have been leveled against it? Statistical relativity - judgments are made based on conceptions of “normal,” and “abnormality” is determined according to the statistical relationship btw a person’s characteristics and an average for the group, assumes that the characteristic is measurable and that you can use a measuring instrument such as a test to assign # to observations, compute scores for average and deviations, “abnormal” is defined in terms of significant deviations from the average, problems with it were that it focused on aptitude/intelligence and it doesn’t guide instructional decision making (doesn’t provide anything in how to teach) Explain the concept of Response to Intervention (RTI). What potential advantages does it have over the method of statistical relativity? What steps should be followed in using RTI? Response to intervention/RTI - steps: show that the quality of general classroom instruction is high, but the student is still responding poorly compared to peers, make adaptations in general classroom instruction to address the student’s needs, if the child fails to respond to these adaptations then the child may be eligible for special ed services, the requirements are what methods and are they appropriate, monitoring the teachers to make sure they’re doing the right thing, make sure the students are getting high quality instructions Why do schools use labels to classify students? What are the potential benefits of classification and labeling in education? What are the

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potential costs? Explain the self-fulfilling prophecy that may lead to low expectations and poor student performance.
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