psych101test3rev

psych101test3rev - Allison Menor Psychology 101 Study Guide...

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Allison Menor Psychology 101 Study Guide I. Human Development Across the Life Span A. Prenatal Development: This period is divided into three   phases; (1) The germinal stage, (2) The embryonic stage, (3) The  fetal stage.   1. Germinal Stage: The first phase or prenatal  development, encompassing the first two weeks after  conception. 2. Embryonic Stage: The second stage of prenatal  development, lasting from two weeks until the end of  the  second month.  3. Fetal Stage: The third stage of prenatal development,  lasting from two months through birth. B. Attachment: Refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection  that develop between infants and their caregivers.  (These findings can were influence by Mary Ainsworth and her  patterns of attachment. Ainsworth and her colleagues  demonstrated infant-mother attachments vary in quality.)  1. Secure attachment- These infants use their mother as a  secure base from which to venture out and explore the  world. 2. Ambivalent attachment- They appear anxious even  when their mothers are near and protest excessively  when she leaves.
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3. Avoidance attachment- Children who seek little contact  with their mothers and often are not distressed when  she  leaves. C. (Erik Erikson- [1963] proposed a sweeping revision of  Freund’s theory that has proven influential. He concluded that  events in early childhood leave a permanent stamp on adult  personality.  However unlike Freund, Erikson theorized that  personality continues to evolve over the entire life span.  (1.) Stage 1- Trust versus mistrust- 1 st  year of life (2.) Stage 2- Autonomy versus shame and doubt- 2 nd   and 3 rd  years (3.) Stage 3- Initiative versus guilt- 4 th  through 6 th   (4.) Stage 4- Industry versus inferiority- 6 th  through  puberty (5.) Stage 5- Identity versus confusion- adolescence  (6.) Stage 6- Intimacy versus isolation- Early adulthood (7.) Stage 7- Generativity versus self- absorption- Middle  adulthood  (8.) Stage 8- Integrity versus despair- Late adulthood D. Cognitive Development: Refers to the transition in 
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youngsters’ patterns of thinking, including reasoning,  remembering, and problem solving.  (1.) Jean Piaget was an in disciplinary scholar whose  on cognitive development was exceptionally rapid. a. Piaget proposed that youngsters progress  through four major pages of cognitive  development, which are  characterized by  fundamentally different  thought processes:  (2.) The sensorimotor period ( birth to age 2) a. Coordination of sensory input and motor  responses; development of object permanence. b. Objective Permanence: develops when a 
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psych101test3rev - Allison Menor Psychology 101 Study Guide...

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