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Chapter 2 Notes - Chapter 2 Notes Overview basic concepts...

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Chapter 2 Notes Overview: basic concepts in physics. Description Position (location of an object and the time it takes) Velocity Acceleration Applications Horizontal motion on land Falling objects (2D motion) Explanations Forces Newton’s Laws Applications Momentum Circular motion Newton’s law of gravitation Measuring Motion Measured by change in position and time. (e.g. ball) Speed (distance/time… change in distance divided by change in time, ratio of distance over time) Change in position with respect to time Speed = distance/time Instantaneous speed – time interval approaches zero, the numbers so small they appear to happen instantaneously V is used for both speed and velocity v (with a bar over the v) = d/t speed is a scalar, because it does not have a destination Velocity (distance/time + direction) must have a direction. Velocity is a vector, it has a direction Velocity is the distance traveled per unit time in a given direction, making it a vector quantity Acceleration (Velocity/time) Problem: the driver of a car moving at 72.0 km/hr drops a road map. How far (in meters) did the driver travel if it takes him 3 s to retrieve the map? Given: 72 km/hr 3 s V= D/t (rearrange to) D=Vt Convert V from km/hr to m/s. 72km/hr = 20m/s D = 60m Acceleration It is change in velocity over change in time. (delta V/delta t). Delta always implies final minus initial. What is the acc. of a bicycle that moves from rest to 5m/s in 5s? A = deltaV/deltat
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A = 5-0/5 A = 1m/s^2 Forces Force is the push and pull that changes the motion of an object. Aristotle reasoned that: when you drop two objects, the heaviest one will hit the ground first. Also, he thought that when there is horizontal motion, one needs a force to act. He believed that force is required for a uniform horizontal motion. Galileo and Newton experimentally showed that all objects fall at the same rate and no force is required for uniform horizontal motion. Horizontal motion does not change, but the vertical can (a parabola) Net Force Friction and Air Resistance and Gravity and Push and Pull all added together acting on an object. The object will move in the direction of the net force. If all forces are equal, the
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