Philosophy Final Study Guide2

Philosophy Final Study Guide2 - Hume -People generally care...

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Hume -People generally care about morality -There is a definite characteristic that makes something morally good or bad Morality – broken up into actions and characters Actions – Consequences – What kind of consequences? Characters – tendencies of action (habits) – What kind of habits? Methods of Determining Hume Morality 1.) Empirical investigation – make conclusions based on observable facts such as human behavior/actions -Morality not based on God’s will -Human nature is universal 2.) Introspection (“looking within”) – Based on one’s own moral judgments regarding actions/people. Apply to yourself and examine own reaction to it – positive reaction = morally good and negative reaction = morally bad. -This method works b/c human nature is universal. -Hume believes his methods are “scientific” Hume’s Basis of Ethics – Psychological Two possible foundations for ethics are Reason (Kant) and Sentiment (Hume) Reason -- Identify facts and relations– Identify consequences –Does not tell what we should/shouldn’t do morally Sentiment – Feelings of approval or disapproval – motivate us to act morally -Morality is about action, and what people should/shouldn’t do -Therefore, sentiments are the foundation of morality because they lead us to act in some ways and not in others -To know what’s moral, we have to look at how we feel when we consider a certain action Role of Reason in Hume Morality -Reason helps us identify facts in the world -Facts help us know consequences of decisions -There are also many cases where we don’t need reason b4 making a decision -Reason presents facts to our mind; once facts are presented, moral sentiments kick in Beauty: Types and Things needed to show it Natural Beauty – Reason not needed and not effective “Finer Arts” – Reasoning needed and effective to convince someone of it Moral “Beauty” – Indicates whether something is good/bad. Reasoning needed and effective
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Philosophy Final Study Guide2 - Hume -People generally care...

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