test 2 245 - Zengi(1127-1146 Turkish warlord who united...

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Zengi (1127-1146): Turkish warlord who united area of present day Southern Iraq and Syria into a single polity. This consolidation of rule is significant because it began a process of unification in area of the world then divided into principalities. Key events of his rule are: assumption of governorship in Mosul (1127), assumption of governorship in Aleppo (1128), conquest of Edessa (1144). This last sparked the Second Crusade. Nur al-Din (1146-1174): Although a son of Zengi, he differed from his father, a man who, though living a simple life, tended to like drink and conversely not like to prayer. His father had embodied a new set of political ambitions in the region, one where military conquest would lead to a unified polity in Syria and Iraq (not principalities under governors acting nominally on behalf of Abbasids). This ruler harnessed Zengi’s ambition to an Islamic ideology, using propaganda to spread knowledge of his goodness. His reign marks new merger of spiritual and political ambition among rulers and people. Salah al-Din (Yusuf Ibn Ayyub, or Saladin) (1169-1193): Saladin exhibited and embodied Zengi’s Ambition and Nur al-Din’s Islamic Ideology. Upon assuming power in Egypt, he took over the territories of Nur al-Din and others outside his realm. During the Third Crusade (1189-1192), he defeated European forces at the Battle of Hattin and ended Franj occupation of Jerusalem. He would eventually make a treaty w/ Richard the Lion Heart after Siege of Acre, one that ensured Franj maintained foothold in area. Ayyubids managed to maintain control for another 50 years after his death.
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