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PSC 152 midterm 3 review

PSC 152 midterm 3 review - Implicit and Automatic Attitudes...

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Implicit and Automatic Attitudes Attitudes: - a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor Psychological Tendency: - a type of bias that predisposes an individual toward evaluative responses that are positive or negative - can be short term - so we may not like mushrooms, but after having a great dinner with mushrooms we may change our mind *we are not always aware of our attitudes Explicit Attitudes: - people can verbally state what their attitude is Implicit Attitudes: - people do not verbally or overtly state their attitude, instead the attitude is implied by their responses to some stimulus Measuring Explicit Attitudes: - likert scale - circle a number 1 – 5 - Semantic differential good to bad favorable to unfavorable pleasant to unpleasant positive to negative Problems with explicit self-report measures: - social desirability - self presentation - unaware of true attitudes Measuring Implicit Attitudes: - Evaluative Priming Task (Bona Fide Pipeline) Assumes that attitudes are activated automatically upon presentation of attitude object Uses the idea of priming Show a picture of Hilary Clinton, and then show a picture of a flower Then ask if the flower is positive, will be faster to respond if they feel positively towards Hilary Clinton
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Congruence between attitude object prime and target word valence = faster RTs Incongruence between attitude object prime and target word valence = Slower RTs Considered to be an “unobtrusive measure” Fazio et al. used variability in automatic attitude activation to measure racial attitudes 1. computerized bona fide pipeline technique 2. independent ratings of adjectives 3. followed by a black face or white face prime 4. if slow to respond to a positive word after a black prime – negative attitude towards blacks Implicit Association Test - slap left leg or right leg for black or white names - same for good or bad words - mixed together - typically people who have negative associations with black people will do bad on test How the IAT works - assumes that we associate good words and bad words with things we like and don’t like - measures in reaction time - congruent is faster - incongruent is slower Prejudice may be an automatic behavior - a large majority (85%) of White Americans show a pro white bias, and so do Asian Americans - about 1/3 of Black Americans show a pro-white bias, 1/3 show a pro- black, 1/3 show no bias - scores on the IAT do not correlate with explicit measures Payne: Gun or Tool? Study - results: No Response Deadline identify gun faster for a black than white
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