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Sociology Notes - Sociology is not common sense common...

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Sociology is not common sense - common sense – basic knowledge of your own society or culture. Sociology – not just a humanistic aspect, as we observe others we observe ourselves. Sociology is a science. It’s a science of society. -Data collection > theory (summary of observation) > hypothesis statement about 2 or variables. (If x then y). You can change theory but not reality. *Science of social relations *Social Structure – patterns of on-going relationships (repetitive behavior). Domain and Basic Assumptions Human nature is universal – how we are different are based on cultural and historical factors. -homo sapiens – latest arrivals – 1 million years – 100,000 Materialist Concept of Human Nature Abraham Maslow Human beings are needy: 1. Food 2. Shelter 3. Clean air 4. Total acceptance by others 5. Gregarious (social) - Human beings are not by nature lazy – they are active and proactive – need meaning in their lives – out of real labor they create this thing we call society. Everything we have is human creation, without labor, nothing else would exist. -Human beings by nature will opt out for efficient means of accomplishing a task over inefficient means. By nature human beings are problem solvers – necessity becomes the mother of inventions. -Human beings by nature will opt out for better diets and more productive means to produce food. -Human beings by nature need love, just like food, water and shelter. They need to be with others and will all other things provided. They do what is necessary to increase the love that others give them. Love is about giving first in hopes of receiving. In sociology – Norm of Reciprocity* set of exchanges. Generosity - Human beings by nature are not greedy nor are by their nature loving. -Human beings are malleable – changeable with insatiable appetites – what constraints their appetites? *The norms and rules of society. 4 revolutions – Agricultural, Scientific, Democratic, Industrial, Informational. *The origins or Sociology 1. Related to the History of Western Societies. 2. Four major revolutions – related to changes in technology A. Agriculture – Greece versus east 1. Development of domesticated animals, use of wooden, bronze, and iron tools. 2. Creation of economic surplus 3. Development of city-states from villages (importance of states). Development of
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commercialism in port cities, merchants, small farmers and a class of slaves (those conquered). Development of social classes. 4. 600b.c. Development of literacy – written language, Alphabet. Intellectual class that is secular develops *Rationalism – the idea that the human mind is capable of understanding nature and the social world – versus *mysticism – religion and supernatural reasoning. 5. From 5 th century b.c. to 180b.c. the development of democracy (for a few) (strategy- goal/tactic – how to achieve).
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