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Unformatted text preview: -1 Test Review 11 Late Middle Ages * Black Plague- real name Bubonic Plague (1347-1351) ; followed by the Pneumonic Plague (1348-1349) and Plague of the Infants (1360-1361)- 1/3 of the population killed-end of serfdom-started in China, came to Europe by ship on fleas on rats (the rats bite people and infected them)- blamed the plague on sins and minorities - RESULTS OF PLAGUE: led to labor shortages and higher prices; led to Peasant Revolts: 1381 (English Peasants Revolt) and Revolts in the Cities; art focused on darkness and * Decline of Church : (1305) conflict between Boniface VIII and Philip the IV over the fundamental issue of universal sovereignty of the papacy versus the royal sovereignty of the monarch; Philip captured the pope and moved the papacy to Avignon * Avignon Papacy : set up in Avignon, France; charged taxes to clergy * Great Schism : Italians wanted Roman Pope so they elected Urban; France said his election was null and void and elected Clement; Urban remained in Rome- Clement went to Avignon causing great schism * Council of Pisa: led to 3 popes (France, Italy, Spain) disposed of the 2 popes in Italy and France and elected a new one, the popes wouldnt step down so then there were three *1415- the church reunites (Council of Constance) * 100 Years War : war between England and France declared by England because France seized Gascony; French Army: well equipped and looked down on peasants; English Army: paid peasant foot soldiers; Charles the dauphin- heir to the French throne: was going to be killed by the English but Joan of Arc saved him * Joan of Arc : very religious and believed she was commanded to free France and have the dauphin crowned king- led France in liberating Orleans- burned at the stake 1431 on charges of being a witch * France won the war 12 Renaissance * rebirth 1350-1400 * spread from Italy- Monarchy : Naples and Milan and Papal States (controlled by Pope)- Republic : Venice- located largely on seas (marintine empire)- Mixed : Florence- Medici Family ruled but was supposed to be a republic * Machiavelli: went to boarding school outside of Florence and always wanted to return; wrote The Prince which says how a prince should act * John Wycliffe: preached church had too much wealth and it should be given back to the state *Humanism: an educational and cultural program, based on the study of the classics, and colored by the notion of human dignity. Petrarch was the father of humanism *Da Vinci- one of the most famous painters during the Renaissance; everything was perfectly geometrical 13 The Reformation * indulgences- bought as a way to promise you soul or relatives souls will escape from purgatory...
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