Lifespan Physiology Block 2

Lifespan Physiology Block 2 - Lifespan Physiology Block Two...

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Lifespan Physiology Block Two Recall Biological and Psychological Risk Factors for Adverse Developmental Outcomes Psychological Domain o Development Quotient o Emotion o Mental Disorders o Cognition Psychological Terms o Intelligence quotient intended to predict level of abilities needed for success in school (IQ) Children with higher IQ’s are expected to perform better academically o Results for developmental tests on an infant or very young children may be reported as a Developmental Quotient (DQ) o Like an IQ, the DQ rates performance on a standard set of tasks as compared with a normative sample of children the same chronological age o Affect-Displayed mood/emotion Negative affect: defines subjective distress that contains unpleasurable/aversive mood states o Emotion influences how client perceives her/his ability to function Biological and Psychological Risk Factors for Adverse Developmental Outcomes o Each of the following affect many children in developing countries: Iodine deficiency (most common preventable cause of mental retardation) Example of treating: o Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones, which are necessary for normal brain development and cognition o Double-blind trial of 10-12 year old children (n=310) in Albania, randomly assigned to receive iodized oil or placebo o Cognition and fine motor skills were improved by iodine repletion Iron deficiency anemia Stunting (developmental dwarfism, height for age below 2 SD of reference values) Example of treating in developing countries: o Randomized trials that provided food supplements showed concurrent benefits to motor and psychological development o In Jamaica, the supplemented group showed an increase in the DQ, and the control group showed a decrease in DQ (Age=9-48 months) o In Colombia, both the control and the supplemental showed a decrease in DQ, however the decline was steeper in the control group Inadequate cognitive and emotional stimulation Evidence for Role of Early Cognition and Emotional Stimulation o Dramatic improvements in child development occurred in undernourished, institution-raised infants adopted into middle-class homes Korean orphans adopted into U.S. families showed synergistic effects of malnutrition and environmental deprivation on intelligence: IQ scores of children adopted after 2 years of age and with a history of malnutrition scored worse than equally malnourished children adopted at less than age 2 Research from Developed Countries o Aspects of parenting that are consistently related to infant/child’s psychological development: Cognition stimulation Caregiver sensitivity and responsiveness to infant/child Caregiver affect (emotional warmth or rejection of infant/child) Evidence for role of mother’s responsiveness
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ES 330 taught by Professor Wilson during the Spring '07 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Lifespan Physiology Block 2 - Lifespan Physiology Block Two...

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