1630 Exam 1 Study Guide

1630 Exam 1 Study Guide - Study Guide for 1st Exam Ch 1-5...

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Study Guide for 1 st Exam Ch. 1-5 Central Questions of Developmental Science - Continuity o Ontogeny : the development of an individual organism during its lifetime o Is development a gradual, continuous process of change, or is it punctuated by periods of rapid change and the sudden emergence of new forms of though and behavior? o John Flavell (1971): suggests four criteria that are central to the concept of a developmental stage Stages of development are distinguished by qualitative changes The transition from one stage to the next is marked by simultaneous changes in a great many, if not all, aspects of a child’s behavior When the change from one stage to the next occurs, it is rapid The numerous behavioral and physical changes that mark the appearance of a stage form a coherent pattern - Sources of Development o What are the contributions of genetic heredity and the environment to the process of developmental change, and how do they interact? o Nature (inherited biological predisposition) vs. Nurture (influences of the social & cultural environment on the individual) - Plasticity The degree to which, and the conditions under which, development is open to change and intervention o To what extent and under what conditions is it possible for the course of development to change, as the result of either deliberate intervention or accidental experience? o Early ideas about plasticity were influenced by researchers who identified certain “critical periods” critical period : A period during which specific biological or environmental events are required for normal development to occur examples: hormones during prenatal development (makes male or female) o Evidence shows development can be facilitated through certain experiences (ex: interaction w/ parents and intellectually stimulated) sensitive period vs. critical period sensitive period : A time in an organism’s development when a particular experience has an especially profound effect - Individual Differences No two human beings are exactly alike o How does a person come to have stable individual characteristics that make him or her different from all other people? Charles Darwin ’s Origin of Species (1859) his belief that human beings had evolved from earlier species fundamentally changed the way people thought about children Stability of a child’s psychological character depends on stability in their environment in addition to any stability that might be attributed to their genetic makeup ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Criteria for Scientific Description : o Replicability : Results must be able to be replicated – same findings under same conditions by another person o Studies are normally replicated because people don’t believe the results
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