Nur 214 Exam II

Nur 214 Exam II - Nur 214 Exam II Fluids and Electrolytes...

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Nur 214 Exam II: Fluids and Electrolytes Review I. Body Fluid Imbalances A. We are approximately 2/3 water B. Functions: 1. Transportation medium 2. Lubrication 3. Elimination of waste 4. Basic metabolism subject C. Distribution of Body Fluids 1. Total Body Water (TBW) – 60% a. Intracellular (40%) b. Extracellular (20%) 1) Interstitial fluid (ISF) – 15% 2) Intravascular fluid – 5% 3) Lymph, synovial, intestinal, biliary, hepatic, pancreatic, CSF, sweat, urine, 2. Fluid not picked up by venous system – lymphatic system picks up & returns to heart through great thoracic duct 3. TBW in adult 70 kg = 60% of body weight 42 L a. 2/3 of TBW (28 L) ICF b. 1/3 of TBW (14 L) ECF 1) ¾ of ECF = ISF (10.5 L) 2) ¼ of ECF = blood plasma (3.5 L) 4. a. Neonates up to 90% b. Newborn to 1 year 70-80% c. Puberty to 39 years men: 60% women: 52% d. 40-60 years men: 55% women: 47% e. More than 60 years men: 52% women: 46% f. ***Men have more body fluid b/c muscle is hydrophilic while fat is hydrophobic & women have more fat*** g. ***Obese more @ risk for body fluid imbalance*** h. ***Females more @ risk than men for body fluid imbalance*** D. Water Movement Between ICF and ECF 1. Osmolality: # of disassociated particles that move across the cell membrane a. Osmosis or milliosmols/kg of H 2 O – 280-295 mOsm/kg 2. Osmotic Forces: pressure or force that is created when 2 solutions are of different 3. Aquaporins: protein H 2 O channels that reabsorb H 2 O
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4. Starling Hypothesis: a. Net filtration = forces favoring filtration - forces opposing filtration b. ***We have a push that must equal the pull we have*** 5. Passive and Active Transport a. Passive Transport: movement of particles along concentration gradient (no E required) 1) Diffusion: random movement of particles in all directions through a solution or gas 2) Hydrostatic pressure: movement of particles in solution from a area of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure a) Push – heart pressure 3) Osmosis: movement of H 2 O across a selectively permeable membrane from a area of lower particle concentration to an area of higher particle concentration a) Pull through venous system
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Nur 214 Exam II - Nur 214 Exam II Fluids and Electrolytes...

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