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Anthropology Midterm II Review

Anthropology Midterm II Review - ANTH 102 MIDTERM II STUDY...

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ANTH 102 MIDTERM II STUDY GUIDE Unit 5: The Construction of Reality Totemism – entity that looks over a family or clan of people; a thing or animal that is a symbol of a whole clan Symbolic action – Collective effervescence – the perceived energy formed when a group of people gather together Ritual - set of actions, often thought to have symbolic value, the performance of which is usually prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community by religious or political laws because of the perceived efficacy of those actions Azande witchcraft – Tribe in present-day Sudan & along the border with the Congo, traditional beliefs revolved around witchcraft and magic. Witchcraft is believed to be an inherited substance in the belly which lives a fairly autonomous life performing bad magic on the person's enemies. Witches can sometimes be unaware of their powers and can accidentally strike people to whom the witch wishes no evil. Because witchcraft is believed to always be present, there are several rituals connected to protection and cancelling of witchcraft that are performed almost daily. It’s believed that no misfortunes are accidental because they believed that someone put a spell on the person. Study was done by Evans-Pritchard in the 1920s Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - postulates that a particular language's nature influences the habitual thought of its speakers. Different language patterns yield different patterns of thought. This idea challenges the possibility of representing the world perfectly with language, because it acknowledges that the mechanisms of any language condition the thoughts of its speaker community Color term experiments – Guugu-Yimidhir spatial terms – Euphemism - substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. It also may be a substitution of a description of something or someone rather than the name, to avoid revealing secret, holy, or sacred names to the uninitiated, or to obscure the identity of the subject of a conversation from potential eavesdroppers Doublespeak - language deliberately constructed to disguise or distort its actual meaning, often resulting in a communication bypass Key Metaphor – Kwakiutl cannibal dance –
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Interpretive drift – Secondary elaboration – Selective perception - any number of cognitive biases related to the way expectations affect perception Romantic competence – Revitalization movements – Wallace’s study; describes how cultures change themselves. A revitalization movement is a deliberate, organized, conscious effort by members of a group to create a new culture Wovoka and the Ghost Dance - also known as Jack Wilson, taught that in order to bring this vision of the resurrection of the Paiute dead and removal of whites and their works from North
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Anthropology Midterm II Review - ANTH 102 MIDTERM II STUDY...

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