Physiology Ch8 lecture

Physiology Ch8 lecture - Neurons: Cellular and Network...

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Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties LECTURE OUTLINE (CHAPTER 8) LECTURE OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the functions of the glia and neurons in the nervous system. 2. Briefly review of membrane potential. 3. Introduce basic concepts, such as hyperpolarization/depolarization, graded potentials/action potentials, etc. 4. Explain how a resting membrane potential can transform into a nerve impulse. 5. Explain how selective ion gating generates the action potential. 6. Explain the principles behind saltatory conduction of an action potential 7. Describe how a nerve impulse passes from neuron to neuron. 8. Establish how neurotransmitters and neuropeptides act at receptors on the post-synaptic membrane. 9. Discuss how the interplay of inhibitory and stimulatory inputs determines if a post-synaptic neuron fires. 10. Explain and evaluate the types of intercellular communication that exist. LECTURE OUTLINE I. CELL TYPES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM A. Neurons communicate information: main function of neuron is COMMUNICATION. However, most of brain and spine consist of other things-glia-and not nerves. Glia are more common than nerve cells!! Brain consists of mostly glia, not nerves! B. Glia support or service the central nervous system and its neurons 1. Astrocytes-many functions such as to support the nerves, involved in blood-brain barrier, secrete neurotrophic factors for growth, and take up excess potassium (K+) and neurotransmitters so effects of these remain normal. 2. Oligodendrocytes-insulates neurons, especially their axons by forming Myelin sheaths 3. Microglia-chew up bacteria aka scavengers 4. Ependymal cells-secrete cerebral spinal fluid
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Clicker: All of the following statements on nerve resting potential are true, except: a. Na+ is more concentrated outside the membrane while K+ is more concentrated inside. B. increasing K+ permeability would make the resting membrane potential negative. C. At rest, membrane permeability is greater for K+ than Na+ D. Cl- leakage into the neuron is responsible for the negative charge inside the membrane. D is the answer!!!!! II. REVIEW MEMBRANE POTENTIAL A. Biophysical properties determine ion distribution 1. Na+ outside, K+ inside, Anion- inside 2. Resting membrane is negative inside--positive outside 3. Passive ion flow is much more important than the Na+/K+ ATPase pump B. Changes in ion permeability alters membrane potential 1. Goldman equation (=GHK equation) revisited. By changing permeability of one ion (Na+), have strong effect on resting potential- depolarizing effect! Sodium goes from outside to the inside the cell and if slight increase of permeability of sodium big change in resting potential and change is depolarizing. 2. Change in the permeability for a
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Physiology Ch8 lecture - Neurons: Cellular and Network...

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