CONNECTIVE TISSUE•Most abundant and widely distributed tissues inthe body•Has Various forms of giving it various functions:-Binds tissues together-Protects and insulates internal organs-Supports and strengthen tissue-Compartmentalize and transport-Energy reserves (adipose or fat tissue) andimmune responses•Consists of 2 elements:-Extracellular Matrix-Cells•Connective Tissue is highly vascular and neural-Except cartilage and tendonCONNECTIVE TISSUE EXTRACELLULARMATRIX•EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-is the material located between the cells.-Consists ofprotein fibers and groundsubstance•GROUND SUBSTANCE-Fluid, semifluid, gelatinous, or calcifiedsubstance between cells and fibers.-Function to support and bind cells, store water,and allow exchange between blood and cells.-Complex combination of proteins andpolysaccharides.-Hyaluronic Acid- is a viscous, slipperysubstance that binds cells together, lubricatesjoints and helps maintain the shape of theeyeball.-Hyaluronidase- an enzyme that breaks aparthyaluronic acid, thus causing the groundsubstance of connective tissue to becomemore liquid.-Chondroitin sulfate(provides support andadhesiveness in cartilage, bone, skin and bloodvessels.)-Dermatan Sulfate(It contains the skin,tendons, blood vessels, and heart valves.)-Keratan Sulfate(contains bone, cartilage, andthe cornea of the eye.)•ADHESION PROTEINS-Fibronectin•FIBERS-Collagen- For tension resistance and tissueflexibility.-Elastic- Branch and join together to form afibrous network within a connective tissue.-Retinacular- Bundled collagen withglycoprotein coating which provide andsupport in the walls of blood vessels and forma network around the cells.CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS●Fibroblasts-Secrete fibers and components ofground substance-Large, flat cells with branchingprocesses.●Macrophages-Engulf bacteria and cellular debris byphagocytosis-Two types of Macrophages-Fixed Macrophages(whichmeans they reside in a particulartissue. For example, alveolarmacrophages in the lungs orspleen macrophages in thespleen.)-Wandering Macrophages(roamthe tissues and gather at sites ofinfection or inflammation●Adipocytes (fat cells/adipose cells)-Store triglycerides (fat)-Found below the skin and aroundorgans such as the heart andkidneys.●Mast Cells (mastocytes)-Produce Histamine (Inflammatoryresponse)●White blood cells (Leukocytes)
-Immune response-Neutrophil(gather at sites of infection) andEosinophils(migrate to sites of parasitic invasionsand allergic responses)●Plasma Cells (plasmocytes)-Secrete antibodies-They are found in many places in the body, mostplasma cells reside in connective tissues, especiallyin thegastrointestinalandrespiratory tracts.They are also abundant in thesalivary glands,lymph nodes,andred bone marrow.