Biology Study Guide

Biology Study Guide - Biology Study Guide Test 1 Levels of...

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Biology Study Guide Test 1 Levels of Organization Most Inclusive B iosphere E cosystem - consists of all the organisms living in a particular area and the nonliving environmental components. C ommunity - all the living organisms in an ecosystem. P opulation - consists of a localized group of individuals of one species. O rganism- an individual living entity. Share common features such as ordered structures, regulation of internal conditions, growth and development, energy use, response to environmental stimuli, and the ability to reproduce and evolve. O rgan System O rgan T issue C ell O rganelle M olecule A tom Least Inclusive Eukaryotic Cells o Most complex
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Cells contain membrane-enclosed organelles, including a DNA-containing nucleus. o Protists are the earliest eukaryotic cell o Eukaryotic cells formed from prokaryotic cells. o Endomembrane is a system of internal membranes within eukaryotic cells that divide the cell into functional, structural components. It is a collection of membranous organelles that manufactures and distributes cell products. o Plant, animal, fungi and protists. o Plant cells have chloroplasts and a rigid cell wall whereas animal cells do not. o Largest organelle is the nucleus. The nucleus is the cellular control center, containing the cell’s DNA, which directs cellular activities. It stores information and controls chemical reactions. o Rough endoplasmic reticulum makes membranes and proteins. o Smooth endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes lipids, processes toxins and drugs in liver cells and stores and releases calcium ions into muscle cells. o The Golgi apparatus finishes, sorts, & ships cell products. o Lysosomes are sacs of enzymes that function in digestion within a cell. They also destroy bacteria that has been digested, recycle damaged organelles, and can cause death if abnormal. o Chloroplasts , found in plants and some protists, convert solar energy to chemical energy in sugars. o Mitochondria carry out cellular respiration, which uses the chemical energy in food to make ATP for cellular work. Prokaryotic Cells
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOL 1543 taught by Professor Roberts during the Spring '08 term at Arkansas.

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Biology Study Guide - Biology Study Guide Test 1 Levels of...

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