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bio 315 chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Principles of...

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Chapter 10: Principles of Classification Classification of Microorganisms (& everything else for that matter) Taxonomy – the science of the classification of organisms Purpose – to show evolutionary relationships between groups & to provide a means of identifying organisms Two Methods of Classification Most scientists favor a PHYLOGENETIC classification scheme; this reflects the actual ancestry (evolutionary relationships) between different organisms Phenetics is an alternative method, in which classification of organisms is based solely on observable characteristics, and the goal is more practical – Identification and common language. The Five-Kingdom System Monera – unicellular prokaryotes (bacteria) Protista – unicellular eukaryotes (protozoa, algae) Fungi – multicellular heterotrophs with external digestion (yeasts, molds, mushrooms) Plantae – multicellular autotrophs (plants) Animalia – multicellular heterotrophs with internal digestion (animals) The 3 Domains Domain – considered to be a new level apart from Kingdom, based on the fact that cells are really of 3 fundamental types: o Eukarya (eukaryotes) o Bacteria (most bacteria) o Achaea
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