BME 314 Final Review - BME 314 FINAL REVIEW Little Note:...

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BME 314 FINAL REVIEW Created By: Lonnissa Nguyen Little Note: Hey guys, so this review just includes a few concepts which I think are important to know for the LAST third of the semester. Read it as a supplement to your studying. I didn’t include the first two thirds because I already made review packets for those subjects, thus the information would be repetitive. Good Luck and you all will do GREAT!!! MEDICAL IMAGING: All medical imaging systems are based on the physical interaction between some energy source and the human body Exceptions, such as phonocardiography and thermography, where an internal energy source within the body are used, are rare and represent very few applications Goal: Diagnostic (morphologic, functional, etc.) information High Contrast High Resolution Low Noise o High Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) o High Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) No artifacts Primary BioMedical Imaging Modalities 1. Radiography a. Electromagnetic (EM) Radiation i. EM radiation has no mass ii. Waves: λ – wavelength [m] c – propagation speed [m/s] f (or ν) – frequency [Hz] iii. Particle : particle-like units of energy (photons or quanta) h – Plank’s constant iv. EM radiation is characterized by: wavelength (λ), frequency ( f or ν), energy per photon ( E ) v. EM radiation travels in a straight lines but its trajectory can be altered 2. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT or CAT)
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BME 314 FINAL REVIEW Created By: Lonnissa Nguyen a. Computed Tomography: slice (tomo-) picture (-graph) i. First CT scanner, EMI Mark 1: 80x80 pixels, 3-mm pixel, 4.5 minutes to acquire, 1.5 minute to reconstruct ii. Original development: head imaging only the capture/reconstruction were too slow for cardiac imaging iii. Truly “computed”, i.e., impossible without computers b. Fourth Four Generations of CT Scanners i. 1 st Generation: One pencil beam source, one detector, translate-rotate, 160 rays, 180 views, slow ii. 2 nd Generation: One narrow fan beam source, 30 detectors, translate- rotate, 600 rays, 540 views, fast iii. 3 rd Generation: One wide fan beam source, 800 detectors, rotate- rotate, faster iv. 4 th Generation: One wide fan beam source, 360° detectors, rotate- stationary, less artifacts v. 5 th Generation: Stationary/Stationary, Cardiac applications, 50 ms scan time vi. 6 th Generation: Helical (spiral) CT, Ribbon cables, Slip ring technology, 30 second scan for entire abdomen (60 cm) 3. Nuclear Medicine , i.e., SPECT and PET In nuclear imaging, biologically important chemicals are labeled with radioactive materials, where the specific labeled compound is chosen depending on the disease. Through nuclear decays, high energy γ-rays are emitted and detected. For
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BME 314 Final Review - BME 314 FINAL REVIEW Little Note:...

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