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Unformatted text preview: Bio 1A: Life, an Overview
Lecture #1 January 23, 2008 Prof. Schlissel Biology 1A: The study of life Goal is to understand how living organisms are built and function Understand life processes in chemical terms Understand the structure and function of cells, tissues, and organs Understand inheritance, storage, and retrieval of genetic information Biology's most profound observation Cells DNA and RNA Metabolism Development 1 A gene controlling skin color discovered in Zebrafish The Cell Theory The cell is simplest unit that can perform all of the fundamental activities of life All living things are made up of cells All cells have essentially the same chemical composition All cells are derived from preexisting cells Cells contain hereditary information that is passed on during cell division Classifications Archea-- mostly single celled, no nucleus; extremophiles Eubacteria-- single-celled prokaryotes (no nucleus) Eukaryotes-- fungi, plants, animals; uni- or multi-cellular 2 Broad classifications Levels of study: Molecules Biochemistry Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Organisms Populations ~1013 cells per human 100's of different types of cells "Seeing" in biology Biochemical experiments Genetic experiments 3 The cell: life's basic unit What a cell needs to do Separate internal from external environment Generate and transform energy Concentrate macromolecules to enhance reactivity Respond to environment Reproduce Defend itself Move 4 Types of bacteria Bacteria Cell just don't sit still 5 Biofilm-- a community of microbes Bugs everywhere Kitchen cutting-board Foot scrapings You've got a dirty mouth!!! 6 Culturing bacteria in the lab Growing animal cells in the lab Eukaryotic cells 7 Organelles Cervical carcinoma cells Human embryonic kidney cells
Red= DNA Green= actin Yellow= mitochondria 8 Mouse fibroblasts
Green= actin Yellow= tubulin Red= DNA cytoskelton Getting around Tissues and organs 9 Tissues and organs are made up from many different types of cells One of the big mysteries of life C. elegans-- a simple model
1000 somatic cells ~2000 germ cells 10 Sea Urchin Early sea urchin embryo Xenopus: South African Clawed Toad 11 Xenopus development Making a chimeric mouse 12 Chimeric Mice
White (recipient embryo) Brown (donor ES cells) Stem cells Obligate intracellular bacteria 13 Hope this doesn't happen to your cells Endosymbiosis: mitochondria were derived from an intracellular bacterium Bacteriophage 14 Virus Its so complicated. Where do we start? The Cell- biology's basic building block Information storage and read-out: Nucleic Acids Biochemical building blocks: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins. Review your basic chemistry. Cells and organelles-- structures and functions Energy and Enzymes Metabolism-- the series of biochemical reactions which cells use to harness energy, synthesize macromolecules and perform cellular functions How cells communicate with one another The molecular biology toolbox 15 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course BIO 1A taught by Professor Schlissel during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '08