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Chapter 9: Jacksonian AmericaTHE RISE OF MASS POLITICSThe Expanding ElectorateAlexis de Tocqueville, French knew that Americans would not be equal once industrialization hit, also Jackson was not EgalitarianVoting- began as only adult white males who were property owners and tax payers- suffrage reformsbegan changed to all adult white males, started in west moved to east; radical reformers argued that rich were better represented than poor because of voting right, property qualification abolished but all were required to be tax payers, governor be owner of most real estateRhode Islandconstitution barred half adult whites from voting, in 1840, lawyer Thomas L. Dorr drafted new constitution and it was approved by popular vote, current legislature opposedIn 1842,two governments claimed legitimacy in Rhode Island, old government proclaimed Dorr rebels and imprisoned them, Dorrites made brief attempt to capture state arsenal, Dorr Rebellionwas failure, old government drafted new constitution expanding suffrageSuffrage laws continued to favor groups, like the rich; blacks and women were not allowed to vote, ballots sometimes spoken, allowed for bribery and intimidation; people began selecting presidential electors, voting still increasedWhere Historians Disagree: The “Age of Jackson”Frederick Jackson Turnerargues, Jacksonrepresents those who wish to make government responsive to people’s will, Jacksonians against conservative aristocracyArthur M. Schlesinger- Jacksonians wanted control of capitalist groups to benefit non-capitalists groups or farmers, laborers, etc.Richard Hofstadterargued Jackson represented aspiring businessmen, opposed privileges that blocked businessmen’s way to successMarvin Meyersargued they wanted to revive agrarian, republican societyMany argued that Jackson was not egalitarian at all, that party systems were results of social changes, and as a result, Jackson fought to show white supremacyThe Legitimization of PartyParties were not approved by many, parties thought of as evils to be avoided and nation should be united under broad agreements; by 1820s, permanent, institutionalized parties were supportedMartin Van Burenformed dissident political faction in New York, Bucktailsor Albany Regency,opposed political leadership led by governor De Witt ClintonBuren’s group argued only institutionalized party, with majority could ensure democracy, emphasis on party loyalty with use of rewards and patronage, also needed permanent opposition to give party a purpose, stay in check with people
Election of Jackson in 1828-spurred support for party as popular, democratic institutionIn 1830s, two-party system operate with anti-Jackson called Whigs and Jacksonians called the Democrats“President of the Common Man”Jackson believed and supported that democracy should offer equal protection and benefits to all white males and should not favor a region or a class, opposed