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Terminology_by_system - EBME 202 Terminology and...

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EBME 202 Terminology and Abbreviations Terms are listed in the order that they come up in the syllabus and are classified according to the syllabus section where they first appear TERM DEFINITION Syllabus section (Body System) ANS autonomic nervous system Basics (General) Controlled variable the factor that we wish to regulate. Eg body temperature Basics (General) Setpoint the desired value of the controlled variable. Eg. Set point for body temperature is 37C Basics (General) Comparator a device that compares the value of the controlled variable with the setpoint. Eg. Posterior hypothalamus responds to change in the body temperature. Basics (General) Error signal signal produced by the comparator Basics (General) Actuator a device for moving or controlling something; activated by error signal Basics (General) Manipulated variable(s) a variable regulated by an actuator. Also, an independent variable in an experiment (controlled by experimenter) Basics (General) Organs a differentiated structure (eg. heart or kidney) consisting of cells and tissues and performing some specific function in an organism Basics (Cell) Tissues a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function Basics (Cell) Inclusion granules distinct granules in the cytoplasm of a cell; often contain reserve materials of some sort. Basics (Cell) Mitochondria membrane-bounded organelles, about the size of a bacterium, that carry out oxidative phosphorylation and produce energy (in the form of ATP) in eucaryotic cells. Basics (Cell) Ribosomal complex particle composed of ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal proteins that associates with messenger RNA and catalyzes the synthesis of protein. Basics (Cell) Lysosome membrane-bounded organelle in eucaryotic cells containing digestive enzymes, which are typically most active at the acid pH found in the lumen of lysosomes. Basics (Cell) Peroxisome small membrane-bounded organelle that uses molecular oxygen to oxidize organic molecules. Contains some enzymes that produce and others that degrade hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Basics (Cell) Nucleus a central part of the eukaryotic cell containing DNA and some RNA Basics (Cell) Osmosis net movement of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane driven by a difference in concentration of solute on either side. The membrane must be permeable to water but not to the solute molecules. Basics (Cell) osmotic pressure the exact amount of pressure required to stop osmosis Basics (Cell) oncotic pressure osmotic pressure exerted on the capillary membranes by dissolved plasma proteins Basics (Cell) RBCs red blood cells or erythrocytes Basics (Cell) Hypotonic/hypertonic having a lower/higher osmotic pressure or solute concentration than another solution Basics (Cell) Albumin the most abundant protein in blood. It is produced primarily in the liver and is important for maintaining plasma volume and osmotic pressure of circulating blood Basics (Cell) ECF
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