Chapter 3 handouts

Chapter 3 handouts - Chapter 3 Structure and...

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Chapter 3 Structure and Stereochemistry of Alkanes
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Chapter 3 2 Alkane Formulas • All C-C single bonds • Saturated with hydrogens • Ratio: C n H 2n+2 • Alkane homologs: CH 3 (CH 2 ) n CH 3 • Same ratio for branched alkanes C H H C H H C H H C H H H H Butane, C 4 H 10 C H H CC H H H CH H H H H Isobutane, C 4 H 10
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Chapter 3 3 Common Names • Isobutane, “isomer of butane” • Isopentane, isohexane, etc., methyl branch on next-to-last carbon in chain. • Neopentane, most highly branched • Five possible isomers of hexane, 18 isomers of octane and 75 for decane!
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Chapter 3 4 Pentanes C H H C H H C H H C H C H H H H H n -pentane, C 5 H 12 C H H CC H H CH H H H H C H H H isopentane, C 5 H 12 C 3 3 H 3 C 3 neopentane, C 5 H 12
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Chapter 3 5 IUPAC Names • Find the longest continuous carbon chain. • Number the carbons, starting closest to the first branch. • Name the groups attached to the chain, using the carbon number as the locator. • Alphabetize substituents. • Use di-, tri-, etc., for multiples of same substituent.
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Chapter 3 6 Longest Chain • The number of carbons in the longest chain determines the base name: ethane, hexane. (Listed in Table 3.2, page 82.) • If there are two possible chains with the same number of carbons, use the chain with the most substituents. C CH 3 2 3 2 2 3 CH CH 2 3 H 3 C H 3 C
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Chapter 3 7 Number the Carbons • Start at the end _________ to the first attached group. • If two substituents are ________, look for the ____________ group. 1 2 34 5 67 CH H 3 C 3 2 3 2 2 3 3
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Chapter 3 8 Name Alkyl Groups •C H 3 -, _________ H 3 CH 2 -, _________ H 3 CH 2 CH 2 -, ___________ H 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, ___________ CH 3 2 3 sec- butyl 3 3 2 isobutyl 3 3 isopropyl C H 3 C 3 3 tert -butyl
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Chapter 3 9 Propyl Groups C H H H C H H C H H H n -propyl C H H H C H C H H H isopropyl H A ________ carbon A __________ carbon
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Chapter 3 10 Butyl Groups C H H H C H C H H C H H H C H H H C H C H H H C H H n -butyl sec -butyl H H A ___________ carbon A ____________ carbon
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Chapter 3 11 Isobutyl Groups C H H H C
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course CHEM 223 taught by Professor Pearson during the Fall '07 term at Case Western.

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Chapter 3 handouts - Chapter 3 Structure and...

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