Chapter 10 handouts

Chapter 10 handouts - Chapter 10 Structure and Synthesis of...

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Chapter 10 Structure and Synthesis of Alcohols
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Chapter 10 2 Structure of Alcohols
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Chapter 10 3 Classification • ________: carbon with –OH is bonded to one other carbon. • __________: carbon with –OH is bonded to two other carbons. • ________: carbon with –OH is bonded to three other carbons. • __________(phenol): -OH is bonded to a benzene ring.
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Chapter 10 4 Classify these: CH 3 3 2 OH 3 C 3 3 3 2 3
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Chapter 10 5 IUPAC Nomenclature • Find the longest carbon chain containing the carbon with the -OH group. • Drop the -e from the alkane name, add - ol. • Number the chain, starting from the end closest to the -OH group. • Number and name all substituents.
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Chapter 10 6 Name these: CH 3 3 2 OH 3 C 3 3 3 2 3 Br 3
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Chapter 10 7 Unsaturated Alcohols • Hydroxyl group takes precedence. Assign that carbon the lowest number. • Use alkene or alkyne name. CH 2 CHCH 2 CHCH 3 OH
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Chapter 10 8 Naming Priority •A c i d s •E s t e r s • Aldehydes • Ketones • Alcohols • Amines • Alkenes • Alkynes • Alkanes t h e r s • Halides =>
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Chapter 10 9 Hydroxy Substituent • When -OH is part of a higher priority class of compound, it is named as hydroxy. • Example: CH 2 2 2 COOH OH
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Chapter 10 10 Common Names • Alcohol can be named as alkyl alcohol. • Useful only for small alkyl groups. • Examples: CH 3 3 2 OH 3 2 3 isobutyl alcohol sec -butyl alcohol =>
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Chapter 10 11 Naming Diols • Two numbers are needed to locate the two -OH groups. • Use -diol as suffix instead of –ol, and retain the e of alkane. HO OH
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Chapter 10 12 Glycols • 1, 2 diols (vicinal diols) are called glycols. • Common names for glycols use the name of the alkene from which they were made. CH 2 2 OH OH 2 2 3 ethane-1,2-diol propane-1,2-diol
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Chapter 10 13 Naming Phenols • -OH group is assumed to be on carbon 1. • For common names of disubstituted phenols, use ortho- for 1,2; meta- for 1,3; and para- for 1,4. • Methyl phenols are cresols. OH Cl 3-chlorophenol H 3 C meta- chlorophenol 4-methylphenol para- cresol (Only when there are no higher priority groups)
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Chapter 10 14 Physical Properties • Unusually high boiling points due to _____________ between molecules.
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course CHEM 223 taught by Professor Pearson during the Fall '07 term at Case Western.

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Chapter 10 handouts - Chapter 10 Structure and Synthesis of...

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