Samantha Munson Drug Action Exam #1 Study Guide Lecture #1 Introduction to Drug Delivery Systems Drug Substance – an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) - RARELY administered in their natural or pure state Dosage Forms – the drug substance combined with other ingredients to be administered in the body in various forms Drug Product – a finished dosage form (ex. Tablet, Capsule, or Solution) Dosage Forms Solid Dosage Forms 1) Powders 2) Capsules 3) Tablets Semisolid Dosage Forms – not pourable; does not flow or conform to its container at room temperature. It does not flow at low shear stress and generally exhibits plastic flow behavior. 1) Ointments 2) Creams 3) Gels 4) Suppositories Liquid Dosage Forms – pourable; flows and conforms to its container at room temperature. It displays Newtonian or pseudoplastic flow behavior. 1) Solutions 2) Suspensions 3) Emulsions Drug Delivery Systems Optimized Drug Product - is a delivery system that balances all factors to produce MAXIMAL EFFECTIVENESS as the primary objective; SAFETY and RELIABILITY are important secondary objectives.
To formulate a drug into a dosage form, the following should be taken into account: 1) Drug Factors – physcio-chemical properties of the drug substance 2) Therapeutic Considerations – diseases and patients 3) Biopharmaceutical Considerations – factors affecting absorption of a drug from various routes of administration Routes of Administration – the organ or site at which a drug formulation is administered Major Sites of Drug Administration are: 1) Oral 2) Respiratory 3) Parenteral 4) Dermal 5) Ocular 6) Body Cavities Major Drug Delivery Systems 1) Transdermal 2) Rectal/Vaginal 3) Buccal/Sublingual/Oral 4) Nasal and Pulmonary 5) Opthalmic 6) Parenteral Drug Formulation Formulation – the process of devising a recipe or formula for a dosage form (ex: Deciding what quantities of what ingredients should be added in what order and what processing steps should be taken); termed a “formula” or a “formulation” Excipients – non-active additive Pharmaceutics – the discipline or pharmacy that deals with all facets of the process of turning a new chemical entity into a medication that can be safely and effectively used by patients - the science of dosage form design - deals with formulation of a pure drug substance into a dosage form
Branches of Pharmaceutics 1) Physical Pharmacy 2) Bio-Pharaceutics 3) Pharmacokinetics 4) Pharmaceutical Technology CLICKER: A drug product only includes an active pharmaceutical ingredient. Yes or No A drug substance is only an active pharmaceutical ingredient. A drug product contains active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients. TRUE/FALSE:
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- Summer '14
- Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical formulation, Acacia, Drug Delivery Systems, active ingredient, Pharmaceutics