Anatomy Exam 3 Reprise 1.An overview of the nervous system a.Glial cells a.i.“nurse cells” a.ii.Metabolically and nutrients support neurons b.Central nervous system b.i.The brain and the spinal cord c.Motor=efferent information c.i.Somatic motor nerve system c.i.1.Only controls skeletal muscle c.ii.Visceral motor system c.ii.1.Controls smooth, cardiac, glands c.ii.2.“autonomic nervous system” d.Sensory Division d.i.Sensory receptors from skeletal muscles of the body d.ii.Visceral sensory divisiond.ii.1.Receptors in the stomach, lungs, and heart e.Peripheral nervous system e.i.Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and sensory receptors f.Somatic nervous systemf.i.Efferent information coming out from the skeletal muscles, sensory receptors that are somatic pick up the information and sent to the somaticintegration center. Receptors pick up the intensity of skeletal muscle movement (the contraction of sarcomeres, the pressure of putting on the tendons, proper movements). f.ii.The human body moves by somatic sensory receptors that send afferent information to the somatic integration center and then efferent informationis sent to the motor units. g.Autonomic Nervous System
g.i.They control cardiac, smooth muscles and glands g.ii.You have receptors in viscera (internal organs of the body)g.iii.Information is being sent to the integration center and we are not aware ofthe contractions or movement of the internal organs. g.iv.A bunch of reflexes are occurring h.Exteroceptors h.i.Taking information from the external environment (special receptors)i.Interoceptors i.i.Taking information from the internal organs (special receptors) j.Proprioceptors j.i.Perceiving the environment (special receptors) – balance and perception. Ex: if you know where your arm is even though you don’t see it. k.Spinal Cord k.i.Gray matter is a region where there is a lot of cell bodies of neurons k.ii.White matter is a bunch of axons (nerve fiber) k.iii.We have nuclei of somatic motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord also have nuclei of autonomic motor neurons as wellk.iv.Nucleus k.iv.1.Physiologically speaking is an aggregation of nerve cells inthe central nervous system (brain or spinal cord), that has a particular function or controls a subset of muscle fibers or tissue. k.iv.2.We find nuclei that controls a certain subset of the body, controlled in the spinal cordk.iv.3.Skeletal muscles are controlled by motor neurons that ultimately come from the ventral horn of the spinal cord. k.iv.4.the more ventral region of the anterior horn controls somatic muscles and the more posterior controls the autonomic organs2.Neural Tissue a.Grey matter is where we find cell bodies of nerves
b.White matter is where we find axons of nerves c.H region of the spinal cord c.i.Ventral horn c.ii.Somatic motor neurons are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord d.Automatic Nervous System d.i.Ganglion d.i.1.An aggregation of all the nerve bodies in the peripheral nervous system d.ii.