Anatomy Exam 2 Overview Chapter 4 1. Embryonic Tissues a. Haploid cells, gametes, undergo fusion with ovum a.i. Formation of a diploid cell then go through a mitotic stage a.ii. Cells begin to difference causing germ layers a.ii.1. Ectoderm a.ii.1.a. Gives rise to your nervous system a.ii.1.b. The entire external lining of your body is all ectoderm (nails and hair) a.ii.2. Mesoderm a.ii.2.a. Connective tissues a.ii.2.b. Muscle tissues a.ii.3. Endoderm a.ii.3.a. Internal lining of the insides of your body a.ii.3.a.i. Stomach, vagina, mouth, trachea, lungs a.ii.4. Epithelial tissue is split over endoderm and ectoderm a.ii.5. Connective tissue and muscle tissue are mesoderm a.ii.6. Nervous tissue is ectoderm b. Epithelial Tissue b.i. Skin is connective tissues and epithelial tissues b.ii. Important Characteristics b.ii.1. Cellular b.ii.1.a. Made up of cells, lots of cells b.ii.2. Polar b.ii.2.a. They look different on one end as oppose to the other
b.ii.2.b. The cells look different on apical surface as opposed to basal surface b.ii.3. Avascular b.ii.3.a. No blood supply, lacking blood vessels b.ii.4. Regenerative b.ii.4.a. Mitotically active b.ii.4.b. Can regenerate b.iii. Functions of Epithelial tissue b.iii.1. Protective barrier b.iii.1.a. Layers of dead cells (keratinized) from whatever injuries b.iii.2. Selective barrier b.iii.2.a. Semi permible membranes on the lining b.iii.3. Sensation b.iii.3.a. Receptors that can feel anything b.iii.4. Secretion b.iii.4.a. Sweat b.iv. Specialization of epithelial cells b.iv.1. Apical surface b.iv.1.a. Cilla b.iv.1.a.i. increase surface area for motility b.iv.1.b. Microvilli b.iv.1.b.i. supported by active filaments b.iv.1.c. Stereocilla b.iv.1.c.i. long microvilli, help create surface area b.iv.1.d. Keratin b.iv.1.d.i. protein that has a bunch of dead cells associated with it
b.iv.2. Lateral Surface b.iv.2.a. Junctional complex b.iv.2.a.i. Lagging two cells together to form a sheet of cells b.iv.2.b. Gap junctions b.iv.2.b.i. There that cells can communicate to each other b.iv.3. Basal surface b.iv.3.a. Basal membrane b.iv.4. Junctional Complex b.iv.4.a. Tight junction b.iv.4.a.i. Integral membrane proteins that attach to one another across the extracellular space b.iv.4.b. Adhering junction b.iv.4.b.i. Connecting integral membrane proteins to cytoskeletons b.iv.4.b.ii. Responsible for holding cells b.iv.4.c. Desmosomes b.iv.4.c.i. Structure that has integral membrane proteins b.iv.4.c.ii. Cells do communicate through gap junctions b.iv.5. Gap junction b.iv.5.a. Tight junctions allow it so that bacteria or other materials can’t get to the blood, forcing the bacteria to go towards the plasma membrane in which they are selective thus not allowing them to our blood stream with a gap that we have b.iv.6. Classification of epithelia b.iv.6.a. Simple b.iv.6.a.i. Single layers of cells b.iv.6.b. Stratified b.iv.6.b.i. Multiple layers of cells
b.iv.6.c. Squamous b.iv.6.c.i. Flat b.iv.6.d. Cubocidal b.iv.6.d.i. Cube shaped b.iv.6.e. Columnar b.iv.6.e.i. Taller than they are wide b.iv.7. Mesothelium b.iv.7.a.
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