Anatomy Exam 2 Overview Reprise Chapter 4 1. Connective Tissue a. Cells and extracellular matrix a.i. Few cells, more matrix a.ii. differences formed due to the matrix a.iii. ground substance= Goo and fiber (elastic and collagen) b. Functions of Connective Tissue b.i. Structural support b.i.1. What supports pituitary gland? b.i.1.a. hypophyseal fossa b.i.2. What’s protecting abs? b.i.2.a. skeletal muscles b.i.3. Cartilage is like a shock absorbing tissue b.ii. Exchange medium b.ii.1. Example: loose connective tissue b.ii.1.a. Epithelial tissue basal side is loose connective tissue, nutrients or waste go from the epithelial tissue to the connective tissue, the waste or nutrients wants to get out of the blood stream. b.iii. Defense and protection b.iii.1. With all the things diffusing from the epithelial tissue, bacteria can get through the epithelial tissue and into the connective tissue, where they will mount an immune response to the bacteria, prevention to the blood stream. “Outpost for the white blood cells, (border patrol for the bacteria) b.iii.2. Phagocytosis= cellular eating/ white blood cells eat the bacteria b.iii.3. When your body mounts an immune response to a bacteria, it’s not different at all from a piece of pollen, body doesn’t have eyes that can recognize whether or not what the thing is
penetrating through the epithelial tissue, white bloods see if something is antigenic, meaning something that has carbohydrates or proteins that are foreign so the white blood cells will make antibodies in defense of that. b.iii.4. Inflammation b.iii.4.a. White bloods get recruited to a sight of infection, Example: if you get an infection in your forearm, if your arm is rash red, swollen up and a little warm when you touch it, this means this is the inflammatory response occurring in the loose connective tissue, inflammatory response is that blood vessels become leaky (plasma and white blood cells seep into the connective tissue), so the resident white blood cells are already there but we recruit white blood cells out of the cell (example: the draft), so with them water, blood and white blood cells come closer to the connective tissue, hence why there is a red color in the sight of the infection and blood carries heat so as it moves superficially, heat is being generated on the top of the infection. Now you get edema (localized swelling). b.iv. Molecular Filter b.iv.1. If bacteria cells get into connective tissue, it’s hard for the bacteria to move. The tissue is very gelatinous (hard to move). b.iv.1.a. Even its hard for cancer cells to divide and move in the gelatinous part of the tissue b.v. Storage b.v.1. Bone is storing bone marrow (responsible for hematopolis= all blood cell formation) and metal ions (ex. Calcium and magnesium) b.v.2. Fat is stored in bone, the older you get the more fat gets accumulated in the bone. When you grow older your capacity to produce blood cells is reduced because bone becomes more fat by nature.
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