Anatomy Exam 3 Reprise - Anatomy Exam 3 Reprise 1 An...

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Anatomy Exam 3 Reprise 1. An overview of the nervous system a. Gilal cells a.i. “nurse cells” a.ii. Metabolically and nutrients support neurons b. Central nervous system b.i. The brain and the spinal cord c. Motor=efferent information c.i. Somatic motor nerve system c.i.1. Only controls skeletal muscle c.ii. Visceral motor system c.ii.1. Controls smooth, cardiac, glands c.ii.2. “autonomic nervous system” d. Sensory Division (afferent division) d.i. Somatic sensory receptors from skeletal muscles of the body d.ii. Visceral sensory division d.ii.1. Receptors in the stomach, lungs, and heart e. Peripheral nervous system e.i. Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and sensory receptors f. Somatic nervous system f.i. Efferent information coming out from the skeletal muscles, sensory receptors that are somatic pick up the information and sent to the somatic integration center. Receptors pick up the intensity of skeletal muscle movement (the contraction of sarcomeres, the pressure of putting on the tendons, proper movements). f.ii. The human body moves by somatic sensory receptors that send afferent information to the somatic integration center and then efferent information is sent to the motor units. g. Autonomic Nervous System
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g.i. They control cardiac, smooth muscles and glands g.ii. You have receptors in viscera (internal organs of the body) g.iii. Information is being sent to the integration center (located in the hypothalamus and medulla oblongata) and we are not aware of the contractions or movement of the internal organs. g.iv. A bunch of reflexes are occurring h. Exteroceptors h.i. Taking information from the external environment (special receptors) i. Interoceptors i.i. Taking information from the internal organs (special receptors) j. Proprioceptors j.i. Perceiving the environment (special receptors). Ex: if you know where your arm is even though you don’t see it. k. Spinal Cord k.i. Gray matter is a region where there is a lot of cell bodies of neurons k.ii. White matter is a bunch of axons k.iii. We have nuclei of somatic motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord k.iv. Nucleus k.iv.1. Physiologically speaking is an aggregation of nerve cells in the central nervous system (brain or spinal cord), that has a particular function or controls a subset of muscle fibers or tissue. k.iv.2. We find nuclei that controls a certain subset of the body, controlled in the spinal cord k.iv.3. Skeletal muscles are controlled by motor neurons that ultimately come from the ventral horn of the spinal cord. k.v. Ganglion k.v.1. A bunch of cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system l. Autonomic Nervous System l.i. Parasympathetic and sympathetic division
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l.ii. Pre ganglion l.ii.1. Autonomic nerves before the ganglion l.iii. Parasympathetic is responsible for rest and digest l.iv. Sympathetic is responsible for flight or flight response l.v. Epinephorine and nor epinephorine l.v.1. Adrenaline l.v.2. Molecules that excite you l.vi. Noir epinephorine is released from post ganglionic sympathetic nerves l.vii.
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