Exam 1 Notes - Exam 1 Overview Chapter 1 In order to be alive you must be Organization organisms defy a fundamental law of the universe Cellular

Exam 1 Notes - Exam 1 Overview Chapter 1 In order to be...

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Exam 1 Overview Chapter 1-In order to be alive, you must be:-Organization: organisms defy a fundamental law of the universe -Cellular Composition: the cell is the basic unit of life -Metabolism and Excretion: anabolism (build something) and catabolism (break down something) -Responsiveness and Movement: sense and react to stimuli -Homeostasis: maintain stable internal conditions-Development: differentiation and growth -Reproduction: vehicles of DNA -Evolution: chance and death --Everything in the universe is going towards positive entropy (more randomness) You use energy to keep something in order i.e. your room – you use energy to keep it neat-You eat food because your DNA told you to so you can steal energy from it, break down carbs and use that energy to build bind to keep you cells in check -Virus (entities) do not have plasma membrane, have a protein coat-1.Levels of Organization a.atomic levela.i.atoms in combination are moleculesb.Molecular level b.i.molecules to cellsc.Cellular level
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c.i.plasma membrane traps fluid, (organelle level), within cells we have sub structure d.Tissue leveld.i.combining cells, a combination of cells are tissues e.Organ levele.i.combine two or more tissues with a function to the human body is organf.System levelf.i.combine many organs under one function (cardiovascular system) g.Organism levelg.i.combine all systems (11) and we got systems working in unison2.Reductionism vs. holisma.Reductionism is breaking down something you don’t understand (like opening up a computer to see how it works) a.i.Example: Medical doctor b.Holism is the approach of looking at something at the whole (like looking at a computer tower to see how computers work) b.i.Example: D.O. (Medical field)3.Homeostasis a.adaptation to the environmentb.requires a lot of energy to stay in organized matter for a human body b.i.Example: we eat food, so we stay energized c.if you have a disruption in homeostasis you have a disease d.If your internal conditions don’t meet with the environment, you die. d.i.Example: maintaining body temperature to meet with environment e.there is no set point because of the constant changes f.Negative Feedback
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f.i.works in contrast to keep balance in body f.ii.Example: consuming a meal of high sugars, so body releases insulin to your body to decrease blood glucose g.Positive feedback g.i.example: hot room so body keeps warming you up until death , blood clottingg.ii.Example of positive feedback: A woman in laborg.ii.1.Afferent information is sent to the brain (control center)g.ii.2.Brain releases Efferent Information (hormone - oxytocin) which travels through the blood vessels all the way to the uterus, thus causing contraction to the smooth muscles of the uterus, pushing the fetus out of the vagina h.Afferent informationh.i.impulses detected in the environment h.ii.Sensory information h.iii.Afferent information goes to the command center and at the command center it is determined what needs to be done to keep the body at balance. h.iv.Example: Afferent information travels through nerves telling the hypothalamus what the temperature is. Efferent information goes to the blood vessels so that they will dilate (vasodilation), allowing the heat to radiate the blood and decreasing body temperature.i.Efferent informationi.i.impulses that are sent to the effectori.ii.Information that leaves the brain, thus causing the effects of the body andhomeostasis i.iii.Example: When your body temperature rises, Efferent information is sent to the sweat glands, increasing water thus causing sweat to appear to cool down the body temperature. i.iv.Example: When your body temperature is cold, Afferent information is detected and sent to the command center (brain) where they determine a solution to this problem, Efferent information is sent down to the blood vessels where they are vasoconstriction, making the blood vessels
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