Exam 1 Notes - Exam 1 Overview Chapter 1 In order to be...

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Exam 1 Overview Chapter 1 - In order to be alive, you must be: - Organization: organisms defy a fundamental law of the universe - Cellular Composition: the cell is the basic unit of life - Metabolism and Excretion: anabolism (build something) and catabolism (break down something) - Responsiveness and Movement: sense and react to stimuli - Homeostasis: maintain stable internal conditions - Development: differentiation and growth - Reproduction: vehicles of DNA - Evolution: chance and death - - Everything in the universe is going towards positive entropy (more randomness) You use energy to keep something in order i.e. your room – you use energy to keep it neat - You eat food because your DNA told you to so you can steal energy from it, break down carbs and use that energy to build bind to keep you cells in check - Virus (entities) do not have plasma membrane, have a protein coat - 1. Levels of Organization a. atomic level a.i. atoms in combination are molecules b. Molecular level b.i. molecules to cells c. Cellular level
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c.i. plasma membrane traps fluid, (organelle level), within cells we have sub structure d. Tissue level d.i. combining cells, a combination of cells are tissues e. Organ level e.i. combine two or more tissues with a function to the human body is organ f. System level f.i. combine many organs under one function (cardiovascular system) g. Organism level g.i. combine all systems (11) and we got systems working in unison 2. Reductionism vs. holism a. Reductionism is breaking down something you don’t understand (like opening up a computer to see how it works) a.i. Example: Medical doctor b. Holism is the approach of looking at something at the whole (like looking at a computer tower to see how computers work) b.i. Example: D.O. (Medical field) 3. Homeostasis a. adaptation to the environment b. requires a lot of energy to stay in organized matter for a human body b.i. Example: we eat food, so we stay energized c. if you have a disruption in homeostasis you have a disease d. If your internal conditions don’t meet with the environment, you die. d.i. Example: maintaining body temperature to meet with environment e. there is no set point because of the constant changes f. Negative Feedback
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f.i. works in contrast to keep balance in body f.ii. Example: consuming a meal of high sugars, so body releases insulin to
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