chapter%2017b - General Chemistry II Professor Maggie...

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Unformatted text preview: General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska Aqueous Aqueous Equilibria Equilibria : : Precipitation Precipitation Chapter 17 ( Chapter 17 ( cont. cont. ) ) The Solubility-Product Constant, K SP • Consider: BaSO 4 ( s ) ⇄ Ba 2+ ( aq ) + SO 4 2 − ( aq ) • for which • K SP is the solubility product . Solubility Equilibria Solubility Equilibria 1 ] SO ][ Ba [ ) ( BaSO ] SO ][ Ba [ 2 4 2 4 2 4 2-- s K + + = = ] SO ][ Ba [ 2 4 2- SP K + = General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska The Solubility-Product Constant, K SP • In general: the solubility product is the molar concentration of ions raised to their stoichiometric powers. • Solubility is the amount (grams) of substance that dissolves to form a saturated solution. • Molar solubility is the number of moles of solute dissolving to form a liter of saturated solution. Solubility Equilibria Solubility Equilibria General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska The Solubility-Product Constant, K sp • Unsaturated solution – less salt dissolved than could be dissolved; Q SP < K SP . • Sat urated solution – maximum amount of a salt dissolved, no solid present; Q SP = K SP . • Supers aturated solution (unstable) – more salt dissolved than could be dissolved according to K SP , solid precipitate present; Q SP > K SP . Dissolved salt at equilibrium with its solid crystals. Solubility Equilibria Solubility Equilibria General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska Solubility and K SP • To convert solubility to K SP • solubility needs to be converted into molar solubility (via molar mass); • molar solubility is converted into the molar concentration of ions at equilibrium (equilibrium calculation), • K SP is the product of equilibrium concentration of ions. Solubility Equilibria Solubility Equilibria General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska It is found that 0.0016 g of CaF 2 are contained in 100 mL of a saturated aqueous CaF 2 solution at 25 ° C. Find K SP for CaF 2 in water at 25 ° C. Solubility Equilibria Solubility Equilibria General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska It is found that 0.0016 g of CaF 2 are contained in 100 mL of a saturated aqueous CaF 2 solution at 25 ° C. Find K sp for CaF 2 in water at 25 ° C. CaF 2 ( s ) ' Ca 2+ ( aq ) + 2F − ( aq ) Solubility Equilibria Solubility Equilibria 2 2 SP ] F ][ Ca [ − + = K General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska General Chemistry II, Professor Maggie Ciszkowska It is found that 0.0016 g of CaF 2 are contained in 100 mL of a saturated aqueous CaF 2 solution at 25 ° C. Find K sp for CaF 2 in water at 25 ° C....
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