Unformatted text preview: The Biology of Psychology Part B
G & H Chapters 3 & 4 The brain before the neuron... The brain as reticulum One big stew of chemicals Camillo Golgi Developed Ag+ (Silver) staining technique Why so special? Santiago Ramon y Cajal Used Golgi's technique to Golgi' study neuron anatomy 1 The Neuron Cell Neuronal Connections 2 The Myelin Sheath 3 Neuron cells have electro-chemical properties Resting Membrane Potential: build up charges 4 Ion Channels Holes in cell membrane Ion = small charged particle Common ions Na+ (sodium) K+ (potassium) Specific for a particular ion Can open and close in response to changes in voltage or presence of a neurotransmitter The Action Potential
Red = Na+ Blue = K+ 5 The Action Potential Sending an electrochemical signal Opening voltage sensitve Na+ channels... Chain reaction (open 1, triggers neighbor) Tidal wave of current = Action Potential 6 At the Synapse: Synaptic Transmission Agonist = imitates natural neurotransmitter Antagonist = blocks natural neurotransmitter Poisons Curare blocks Ach Tetrodotoxin blocks Na+ channels Black widow spider venom, overrelease of ACh 7 Common Neurotransmitters... Glutamate Primary excitatory neurotransmitter (most common) Default excitatory neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) Inhibitory neurotransmitter Used all over the brain to regulate function Norepinephrine (NE) Close relative of adrenaline Affects alertness and arousal Many Stimulants enhance NE levels Common Neurotransmitters... Acetylcholine (ACh) communication between nerves and muscles, learning In the brain, nicotine is agonist for ACh Dopamine (DA) influences movement, attention, emotions, learning Too little, Parkinson's Disease Parkinson' Too much, Schizophrenia Cocaine amplifies DA levels Serotonin (5-HT, SS) Affects mood and alertness Too little, Depression Prozac, increases SS levels Ecstasy stimulates massive SS release 8 Methods for Studying the Brain...
1. 2. Case Studies / Accidental Damage
Phineas Gage "Tan" [Paul Broca, 1865] Autopsy of Tan... Tan... "Broca's Aphasia" Broca' Aphasia" 3. [Carl Wernikie, 1874] "Wernikie's Aphasia" Wernikie' Aphasia" 9 Methods for Studying the Brain...
4. WWI (1914-1918)
Many soldiers with shrapnel damage 1000's of case subjects 1000' Kurt Goldstein: studied about 2000 patients II.
1. 2. Intentional Damage
Split-brain patients, patient H.M. Moniz (Nobel Prize) Damage frontal cortex in monkeys no temper tantrums Frontal Lobotomy in humans (35,000x) Methods for Studying the Brain...
III. Electrical Stimulation Recording
1. 2. 3. Mapping primary motor cortex? Recording neuronal activity during behavior Discovery of "pleasure centers"
Olds & Milner (1954) Self stimulation in rats 10 Remote Control Rat! The EEG (electroencephalogram) 11 Methods for Studying the Brain...
IV. Imaging the Brain
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. X-ray CT or CAT PET MRI fMRI PET machine 12 MRI fMRI (with MRI) 13 14 Do we only use 10% of our brain? 15 ...
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- Spring '08
- Psychology, Camillo Golgi, Paul Broca, Primary Excitatory neurotransmitter, Default excitatory neurotransmitter