Unformatted text preview: The Biology of Psychology Part A
G & H Chapters 3 & 4 History of ideas about brain and behavior Ancient Greece Aristotle The brain is a cooling system for the blood Thoughts and emotions are nonmaterial (psyche) Psyche (= mind) controls behavior, interacts with the body through through the chest (Psyche disconnected from the body = death) Hippocrates All thoughts and emotions arise from the brain Prevalent view in many ancient cultures (Greek, Egyptian, Sumerian, etc.)... thoughts and emotions arise from the chest Why did they think this? 1 More History Middle ages
"loose your mind" mind" Mind separated from body = insanity No cure, you're just an animal, therefore sanitarium (lock you' them up and throw away the key) Animals were viewed as "mindless" slaved to instinctual mindless" drives Transition to modern era The birth of scientific thinking during the renaissance transformed thinking on many different fronts, including medical knowledge...important clues came from people knowledge... with brain damage. Phrenology: an early mistake... "Localization of function" debate... Is one part of the brain, just as good as another? Franz Gall
1. Different part of the brain control different function 2. Larger bumps on the skull = more brain devoted to a function 2 Phineas Gage: an important clue Note: There were numerous other important clues from a variety of sources such as Brocca and Wernicke Modern localization of function 3 Divisions of the Nervous System The Nervous System CNS (central nervous system) Brain and Spinal Cord PNS (peripheral nervous system) Everything else The PNS Somatic Nervous System voluntary movements Afferent (sensory, incoming) Efferent (motor, outgoing) Autonomic Nervous System "automatic" automatic" heart rate, breathing, etc. Sympathetic fight or flight Parasympathetic rest and digest 4 Connecting PNS to CNS: The Spinal Cord Dorsal Roots: input to CNS Ventral Roots: output to CNS Grey mater: neuron cell (cell body) White mater: connections between neurons (axons) Connecting PNS to CNS: The spinal Reflex 5 Overview of the CNS Encased in bone (skull and vertebrae) Meninges: Membranes between skull and CNS dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) Fills space between dura and pia The CNS is in a "sack" of fluid Overview of the CNS Brain Cerebral hemispheres; cerebral cortex; neocortex 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal Corpus callosum "subcortical" / "limbic system" Thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala Brain stem Midbrain, pons, medulla pons, Cerebellum ("little brain") Spinal Cord 6 Midline View of the Brain 7 The Limbic System Limbic structures Think: emotional processing, but... but... 4 Main Lobes of Cortex 8 Functions of major brain regions... Frontal Lobe Executive control, decision making, social judgment, etc. Primary motor cortex Occipital Lobe Visual information Parietal Lobe Primary Somatosensory (touch) cortex Attention, higher order visual processing (where), integrate touch and vision Perception of motion, locating object in space, judging distance Functions of major brain regions... Temporal Lobe Primary auditory cortex, most olfactory processing Higher order visual processing (what), naming of objects, recognizing faces Hippocampus Memory formation, the "smell brain" brain" Amygdala Emotional processing (Fear) Corpus Callosum Connection between cerebral hemispheres 9 Functions of major brain regions... Cerebellum Coordination of movements Thalamus Connects cortex to the rest of the brain Hypothalamus hormonal function, basic drives, connects to pituitary gland Primary motor & Primary somatosensory Cortex 10 Primary Visual & Primary Auditory Cortex Plasticity of the Brain Plasticity = ability to change We can adapt to new situations, learn new tasks, learn new information, etc. Some of these changes occur at the level of individual neurons (more on this later...) The brain has flexibility and can change (within certain limitations) Brain areas can NOT change to processing a different type of information (auditory to visual), but... but... 11 Cortical Plasticity (use it or loose it) Epilepsy and the Split Brain Operation 12 The "Split-Brain" Patient 13 Video: Split-brain patient (about 12 min) 14 ...
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- Spring '08
- Psychology, primary auditory cortex, major brain regions