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Unformatted text preview: General Psychology
Introduction to the field and major issues Psychology as Science People have questioned why people do the things they do since human being have existed... Plato, Descarte, etc. ("armchair") Wilhelm Wundt 1879 ("experimental") Univ. of Leipzig, Germany William James 1890 "Principles of Psychology" (first psych textbook) "The first lecture on psychology I ever heard was the first I ever gave." Psychology as "soft" of "pseudo" science Can you measure it? 1 Levels of Analysis in Psychology: What can you measure? Major Subfields Social Psychology Cognitive Psychology Personality Psychology 2 Major Subfields cont. Clinical Psychology a.k.a. Abnormal Psychology Research vs. Application (therapy) Developmental Psychology Childhood through old age... Major Subfields cont. Biological Psychology (physiological psychology, neuroscience) Comparative Psychology 3 Minor (but growing) Subfields Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology Environmental Psychology Sports Psychology Goals of Psychology Explain behavior Predict behavior Control behavior 4 Pre-Modern Psychology... Introspection "armchair" The "Mind-Body Problem" What is the "mind" and what is its' relationship to the body? How are physical sensations translated into conscious experience? Views on Mind-Body Problem... Middle ages "loose your mind" Mind separated from body = insanity Dualism Rene Descartes (1600's) Mind-body Dualism Connected at the pineal body Spiritualism Physical reality is a figment of our imagination 5 Views on Mind-Body Problem... Materialism Mind and body are both physical Most common view of modern scientists "the mind is what the brain does" Why follow this view? It's a useful working assumption You can measure things in the brain Measurement and Science In order to study something scientifically (i.e. using the scientific method), you must be able to measure it! If you can't measure it, you can study it. Lack of evidence is no proof of lack of existence! 6 In walks Wundt... Scientific study of behavior? What can you measure? Movements / actions Wundt: define "behavior" as actions Reaction time... Overview of Modern Psychology Early Experimentalist (Wundt, James) Structuralism (Titchener) Apply introspection to understand the structure of the mind Functionalism Explain, predict, etc. Study the social world like the physical world 7 Overview of Modern Psychology Behaviorism (Watson, Skinner) "Laws of Behavior" ??? Input-output relationship Input- Cognitive Revolution... Biological Revolution!!! Nature vs. Nurture:
the ever present issue Instinct vs. Learned behavior 2 things have feed the debate...
1. Growth of knowledge about genetics 2. Greater appreciation for the impact of experience/learning Which one is most important?
BOTH (nobody really argues with this...) Debate over RELATIVE contribution e.g. Schizophrenia, personality development 8 ...
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- Spring '08